Vol 50 No 11 (2021)

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 205 | views: 204 | pages: 2161-2171

    Background: The aim of the present study was to systematically review the efficacy and safety of mecobalamin combined with prokinetic agents in diabetic gastroparesis (DGP).

    Methods: A variety of databases were searched from inception to Nov 2, 2018. RCTs of mecobalamin combined with prokinetic agents group (experimental group) versus prokinetic agents only group (control group) in DGP were included. RevMan 5.3 and Stata 12.0 were used to perform the meta-analysis. Finally, 24 RCTs with 1,878 patients were included.

    Results: The total efficacy rate was significantly higher in the experimental group (mecobalamin combined with prokinetic drugs) compared with the control group (prokinetic drugs alone) (P<0.001), and the improvement was observed regardless of the administration route. Furthermore, the treatment group exhibited a significantly improved gastric emption rate (P<0.001), motilin (P<0.001) and recurrence rate (P<0.001), and there was no statistical difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between two groups (P=0.49).

    Conclusion: Mecobalamin combined with prokinetic agents can significantly improve total efficacy rate and gastric emptying rate, decrease serum motilin and the recurrence rate without increasing adverse reactions in DGP. Thus, mecobalamin may can be used as a new therapeutic option for DGP.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 153 | views: 190 | pages: 2172-2182

    Background: The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method is frequently used for identifying many microorganisms. The present review aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of LAMP method for detection of food-borne bacteria and to compare these features with those of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as an alternative molecular diagnostic procedure, and with cultivation method, as the gold standard method.

    Methods: The literature was searched in electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE) for recruiting publications within Jan 2000 to Jul 2021. We used the combinations of keywords including foodborne disease, LAMP, PCR, Loop-mediated isothermal amplification, and polymerase chain reaction. Meta-analysis was used to adjust the correlation and heterogeneity between the studies. The efficiency of the methods was presented by negative likelihood ratio, positive likelihood ratio, sensitivity, specificity, and odds ratio using forest plots. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistical significance cut off. The confidence intervals were presented at the 95% interval.

    Results: Overall, 23 relevant studies were analyzed. The sensitivities of LAMP and PCR methods were estimated to be 96.6% (95% CI: 95.0-97.7) and 95.6% (95%CI: 91.5-97.8), respectively. The specificities of LAMP and PCR were also estimated to be 97.6% (95%CI: 92.6-99.3) and 98.7% (95%CI: 96.5-99.5), respectively.

    Conclusion: The specificities of LAMP and PCR assays were determined by comparing their results with cultivation method as the gold standard. Overall, the specificity of both PCR and LAMP methods was low for detection of fastidious bacteria. Nevertheless, LAMP and PCR methods have acceptable specificities and sensitivities, and their application in clinical practice necessitates more studies.

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 313 | views: 261 | pages: 2183-2190
      Background: This cross sectional study was conducted to analyse the level of motivation and prosocial as well as antisocial behaviors of the individuals with physical disabilities who do sports, to evaluate whether their moti-vational states were related with prosocial and antisocial behaviors, and to determine if the type of disability affect their motivation or prosocial and antisocial behaviors.

    Method: The research was conducted on 688 individuals who do sports and have physical disabilities in various regions of Turkey in 2020. Motivation Scale for Sports Participation of People with Disabilities (MSSPPD), Pro-social and Antisocial Behavior in Sport Scale (PABSS) were used as data collection tools in this research.

    Results: Motivation to participate in sports level of the individuals with physical disabilities was quite high. Their prosocial behavior towards their teammates and opponents was high, while their antisocial behavior towards teammates and opponent team players was low. When subjects' motivations were examined according to the type of disability, motivation levels of individuals with orthopedic and visual disabilities were higher than those of individuals with hearing disabilities.     Conclusion: As a result, individuals with disabilities need strong motivation to participate in sport programs and this improves them behaviourally. As their motivation for participation in sport increased, their pro social behaviors were positively affected, and their antisocial behaviors decrease.      
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 108 | views: 147 | pages: 2191-2201

    Background: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of Shenqi Jiangtang granules-assisted Western medicine in the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

    Methods: A total of 147 patients with GDM treated in Qilu Hospital of Shandong University from Jan 2018 to Apr 2019 were enrolled. They were randomly divided into traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with Western medicine group, Western medicine group and control group. The control group was treated with exercise combined with diet therapy, and the Western medicine group was additionally treated with metformin tablets. The TCM combined with Western medicine group was additionally treated with Shenqi Jiangtang granules.

    Results: After treatment, the levels of 10 indicators in the three groups were lower than those before treatment (P < 0.05). These indicators were the lowest in the TCM combined with Western medicine group. However, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) after treatment increased in the three groups compared with those before treatment (P < 0.05), which was the most obvious in the TCM combined with Western medicine group. After treatment, the number of patients with natural delivery in the TCM combined with Western medicine group was the largest. The incidences of complications in pregnant women, fetuses and newborns were the lowest in the TCM combined with Western medicine group.

    Conclusion: Application of Shenqi Jiangtang granules-assisted Western medicine in patients with GDM can effectively control blood glucose and lipid levels, enhance antioxidant capacity, reduce the levels of inflammatory cytokines and decrease the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 122 | views: 157 | pages: 2202-2210

    Background: Given the long-term impact of public health emergencies on adolescents’ mental health, extensive effort should be exerted in the psychological intervention of adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study combined solution-focused theory and video health education to explore the intervention effect of this model on adolescents’ mental health.

    Methods: Overall, 126 volunteers with anxiety symptoms from four communities in 2021 in Anhui Province, China were randomly divided into the intervention and control groups (63 members in each group). The control group only received health education popularized in the community. By contrast, the intervention group was given the same health education and provided with solution-focused psychological counseling and short video health education related to the pandemic.

    Results: Results after the intervention were as follows: 1) The Self-rating Anxiety Scale scores of both groups were low, but the effect on the intervention group was better than the control group (P < 0.05). 2) Both groups’ positive and negative affect scores were higher and lower than those before the intervention were, but changes in the scores of the intervention group were greater than that of the control group (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: The group intervention of solution-focused theory combined with video health education can improve the mental health level of adolescents, effectively alleviate their anxiety and negative emotions, and improve their positive emotions.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 122 | views: 192 | pages: 2211-2218

    Background: We aimed to examine the effects of cool-down exercise and cold-water immersion therapy on agility, speed, power, balance, and sport-specific skill performance in college soccer players, and to provide baseline data for the development of effective recovery programs.

    Methods: In August 2020, 21 male college soccer players in Seoul, Korea, were randomly divided into the following groups: control group (CG, n=7), cool-down exercise group (CDG, n=7), and cool-down exercise plus cold-water immersion group (CDCWG, n=7). Agility, speed, power, balance, and sport-specific skill performance were assessed before and after the intervention.

    Results: No significant differences in Southeast Missouri (SEMO) Agility Test, 20-m sprint test, vertical jump test, or Y-balance test (right) were observed among the groups; however, there was a significant effect of time (P<0.05) and a significant time × group interaction (P<0.05). Significant effects of time (P<0.001), group (P=0.043), and a time × group interaction (P=0.009) were observed in the Y-balance test (left). There were no between-group differences in the 22-m dribble test, shooting test (left), or shooting test (right); however, there were significant effects of time (P<0.05) and significant time × group interactions (P<0.05). No significant effects of group or time × group interactions were observed for the kicking test (left or right); however, there were significant effects of time (P<0.001).

    Conclusion: Addition of cold-water immersion therapy to a recovery program including cool-down exercise can promote recovery of basic and sport-specific abilities among college soccer players.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 83 | views: 125 | pages: 2219-2228

    Background: Judges may experience mental health problems, which reduces their performance in juridical cases, and constitutes a great threat to both the authority of law and social justice. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of psychological distress among judges and examine the effect of perfectionism on psychological distress with age and gender as the moderators.

    Methods: This survey was carried out in person with 565 Chinese judges in 2016, using the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. The effects of perfectionism on psychological distress was explored by Structural Equation Model (SEM), and the moderating effects of age and gender were tested by Multi-group analysis.

    Results: Psychological distress was reported by 89.20% of the judges surveyed. Discrepancy had a significant positive effect on psychological distress, but order had a significant negative effect on psychological distress, with high standards exerting no significant effect. Age had a significant moderating effect, whereas the moderating effect of gender was not significant.

    Conclusion: The three dimensions of perfectionism exerted different effects on psychological distress of Chinese judges, and the relationships were moderated by age.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 90 | views: 125 | pages: 2229-2237

    Background: Despite the available diagnostics and treatment, tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease currently occurring. Even some high-income countries in the world do not fully control it at this time. The reason for this situation is the lack of elimination programs to address the situation. The aim of the update of the prediction data was to create a presumption of TB development in Slovakia by 2040.

    Methods: We used the time series prediction method with exponential equalization. The basis for the calculation were historical data on the incidence of TB from 1960 to 2018 in Slovakia (data for the last 58 yr). This time series has a clearly declining level. In view of this trend, we have set a threshold, whether and when the incidence in the future will fall below 5.0 patients per 100,000 inhabitants.

    Results: In case of a favorable development, the limit of our incidence drop below 5.0 cases per 100 000 inhabitants in 2022, when the incidence will be 4.91 per 100 000 inhabitants. In 2040, the predicted incidence of TB should be 1.78 per 100 000 inhabitants. A gradual decline may also be related to a decrease in the population of the Slovak Republic.

    Conclusion: Slovakia belongs to those countries of the world where TB is under control. Increased surveillance of high-risk communities through community interventions and countries' readiness for global migration can help to influence factors that may aggravate the epidemiological situation of TB.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 75 | views: 143 | pages: 2238-2245

    Background: To address the biomarkers that correlated with the prognosis of patients with PDCA using bioinformatics analysis.

    Methods: The raw data of genes were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. We screened differently expressed genes (DEGs) by Rstudio. Database for Annotation,Visualization and Intergrated Discovery was used to investigate their biological function by Gene Ontology(GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes (KEGG) analysis. Protein-protein interaction of these DEGs were analyzed based on the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes database (STRING) and visualized by Cytoscape. Genes calculated by CytoHubba with degree >10 were identified as hub genes. Then, the identified hub genes were verified by UALCAN online analysis tool to evaluate the prognostic value in PDCA.

    Results: Three expression profiles (GSE15471, GSE16515 and GSE32676) were downloaded from GEO database. The three sets of DEGs exhibited an intersection consisting of 223 genes (214 upregulated DEGs and 9 downregulated DEGs). GO analysis showed that the 223 DEGs were significantly enriched in extracellular exosome, plasma membrane and extracellular space. ECM-receptor interaction, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and Focal adhesion were the most significantly enriched pathway according to KEGG analysis. By combining the results of Cytohubba, 30 hub genes with a high degree of connectivity were picked out. Finally, we candidated 3 biomarkers by UALCAN online survival analysis, including CEP55, ANLN and PRC1.

    Conclusion: we identified CEP55, ANLN and PRC1 may be the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets of PDCA, which used for prognostic assessment and scheme selection.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 79 | views: 108 | pages: 2246-2253

    Background: We aimed to explore and analyze the relationships between mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and hypotension in patients with hemodialysis.

    Methods: The clinical data of 163 patients from the Xinghua People’s Hospital, Taizhou, China with hemodialysis were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence of hypotension was counted and the levels of MCV and RDW were compared between the patients with and without hemodialysis. MCV and RDW were analyzed as possible influencing factors of hypotension. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was drawn to analyze the effect of MCV and RDW on the risk assessment of hypotension in patients with hemodialysis.

    Results: MCV in patients with hypotension was significantly lower than those without hypotension (P < 0.05), and RDW was higher than those without hypotension (P < 0.05). The constituent ratio of higher age (>60), diabetic nephropathy, maintenance hemodialysis, MCV < 80fl, RDW > 14.8%, malnutrition, anemia, ultra-filtration rate, diet during dialysis, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and antihypertensive drugs before dialysis were higher in patients with hypotension than those without hypotension (P < 0.05). The sensitivity, specificity and AUC of the combination of MCV and RDW were higher than those of the single assessment. MCV is lower in patients with hypotension and RDW is higher than those in patients without hypotension.

    Conclusion: MCV combined with RDW has a good evaluation effect.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 53 | views: 88 | pages: 2254-2262


    Background: As an infectious disease closely related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, autoimmunity, inflammation, environment and heredity, the relationship between the single nucleotide polymorphism of elongase 2 gene and the susceptibility to tuberculosis is still unknown.

    Methods: Between January 2016 and November 2018, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted. This epidemiological survey was conducted in both hospitals every three months. rs3798719, rs1570069, and rs2236212 in ELOVL2 gene were detected by Sanger sequencing.

    Results: Stratified by gender, the genotypes and allele frequencies of rs3798719, rs1570069 and rs2236212 showed significant differences between the two groups (χ2 = 6.987, P = 0.030), Genetic modeling showed that rs3798719 was statistically different in the overdominance model (χ2 = 4.784, OR = 1.414, 95% CI: 1.036-1.929, P < 0.05). The polymorphism of rs2236212 between male TB patients and healthy controls was statistically different in the dominance model. (χ2 = 4.192, OR = 0.507; 95% CI: 0.262-0.981, P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: The rs3798719 of ELOVL2 gene may be associated with susceptibility to TB in female population and the rs2236212 of ELOVL2 gene may be associated with TB incidence in male patients.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 141 | views: 193 | pages: 2263-2273

    Background: We aimed to investigate the relationship among mobile phone dependence, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, time management disposition, and academic procrastination in Chinese students majoring in physical education. In addition, we explored the mediating roles of self-efficacy for self-regulated learning and time management disposition in the relationship between mobile phone dependence and academic procrastination.

    Methods: We adopted a random sampling method to identify 324 physical education majors at five universities in Shaanxi Province, China in 2020. Data were analyzed via exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, correlation analysis, structural equation model analysis, and path analysis.

    Results: Mobile phone dependence had significant positive effects on academic procrastination (P<0.001) and self-efficacy for self-regulated learning (P<0.05) but a significant negative effect on time management disposition (P<0.001). Self-efficacy for self-regulated learning had a significant positive effect on academic procrastination (P<0.001), while time management disposition had a significant negative effect on academic procrastination (P<0.01). Notably, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning and time management disposition mediated the relationship between mobile phone dependence and academic procrastination (P<0.05).

    Conclusion: In addition to its direct effect on academic procrastination, mobile phone dependence exerts an indirect effect via time management disposition and self-regulated learning efficacy. Reducing students’ dependence on mobile phones is necessary for attenuating academic procrastination on university campuses. Thus, universities should aim to restrict the use of mobile phones in the classroom, actively cultivate students’ confidence in their self-regulated learning ability, and educate them regarding appropriate time values.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 63 | views: 97 | pages: 2274-2282

    Background: Intimate partner violence is a serious global social problem. While intimate partner violence is highly prevalent, few studies have examined its negative outcomes among victims in South Korea. The aim was to clarify the mediating roles of interpersonal dependency and anger on the relationship between intimate partner violence victimization and suicidal ideation.

    Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 301 participants (203 women and 98 men) aged 18–65 yr completed an online questionnaire on a social networking site. Data were collected between Feb and Mar 2017 in South Korea. Structural equation modeling was used to test the fitness of the conceptual model of this study.

    Results: We found significant correlations between intimate partner violence victimization, interpersonal dependency, state-trait anger, and suicidal ideation. Intimate partner violence victimization influenced anger and suicidal ideation only when the victims had high interpersonal dependency.

    Conclusion: It is necessary to develop programs for reducing interpersonal dependency and improving anger management that are specifically targeted at intimate partner violence victims to prevent suicidal ideation.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 73 | views: 125 | pages: 2283-2291

    Background: This study enriched our understanding by systematically reviewing knowledge management twitter health (KMTH) articles extracted from Web of Science (WoS) using cartography analysis through VOSviewer–for the last 11 years.

    Methods: A total of 798 KMTH articles were found from 2009 to 2019, analyzed based on the most co-occurrence keywords of KMTH articles.

    Results: Three clusters emerged through cartography analysis; Cluster 1: Twitter as health education and health promotion platform; Cluster 2: Twitter as public health promotion platform and Cluster 3: Twitter as health sentiment platform through big data and machine learning.

    Conclusion: This study opened new avenues for all health care providers to utilize Twitter as a KM platform to promote health care. This is the first bibliometric analysis of KMTH publications according to our best knowledge.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 122 | views: 189 | pages: 2292-2301

    Background: We aimed to prepare a nanofluid, containing f-MWCNTs, and investigate the antibacterial efficacy of f-MWCNTs+ ciprofloxacin (cip) on Klebsiella pneumoniae by evaluating the virulence gene expression.

    Methods: This study was carried out from 2019 to 2020, in the Department of Mycobacteriology and Pulmonary Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran. The nanofluid containing antibiotic and f-MWCNTs were prepared by the ultrasonic method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin and f-MWCNTs were determined using the broth micro dilution MIC tests. For examining the antibacterial effects, the expression level of virulence genes, under the influence of f-MWCNTs, was evaluated by a real-time PCR.

    Results: The effect of 8 µg/ml ciprofloxacin + 400 µg/ml f-MWCNTs, completely inhibited the growth of the resistant isolate of K. pneumoniae, while, in the ATCC 700,603 isolate, 2 µg/ml ciprofloxacin with 100 µg/ml f-MWCNT could inhibit a bacterial growth. In the resistant K. pneumoniae clinical isolate, after f-MWCNT+cip treatment, the expression of fimA, fimD, wza, and wzi genes was significantly downregulated, compared to the ciprofloxacin treatment, and upregulated, compared to the negative control. For the ATCC 700,603 isolate treated with f-MWCNT+cip, the expression of fimA, fimD and wza virulence genes showed upregulation, compared to the negative control and downregulated in comparison with the ciprofloxacin treatment.

    Conclusion: Simultaneous treatment of resistant isolate of K. pneumoniae with f-MWCNTs +antibiotic could improve the effectiveness of antibiotic at lower doses, due to the reduced expression of virulence genes in comparison with antibiotic treatment, besides the increased cell wall permeability to antibiotics.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 78 | views: 115 | pages: 2302-2308

    Background: Human hydatidosis as a public concern has increased in a number of countries that have reduced control programs for the disease due to lack of resources or policies. We aimed to estimate Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for human hydatidosis in Iran in 2018.

    Methods: Data were collected from the Center of Communicable Diseases Control, Ministry of Health &Medical Education, Tehran, Iran in 2018. To calculate DALYs, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL) with years of life with disability (YLD) were calculated according to the formula as DALY = YLL + YLD. The standard life expectancy lost method (SEYLL) was used to calculate the years lost due to premature death.

    Results: DALYs for human hydatidosis was calculated as 1210.12 years (YLD equals to 177.12 and YLL equals to 1033) in Iran for the year 2018. It was estimated to be 700.2 years for men and 509.8 years for women.  DALYs in men were significantly different from women (P= 0.001) so DALYs were more in men than women were. YLD was calculated at 78.228 years in men and 98.892 years in women and in both men and women at 177.12 years. YLD was significantly different in women compared to men (P=0.001), so YLD in women was more than in men.

    Conclusion: We reached considerable indices for hydatidosis in our study. Therefore, disease prevention and control programs in Iran seem necessary by the policy makers.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 102 | views: 143 | pages: 2309-2316

    Background: A set of experiences that leads to the destruction of individual’s self-esteem are the main causes of suicide. Socioeconomic factors can be reasons for this event. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the impact of socioeconomic variables on suicide.

    Methods: A panel data model was used to investigate the impact of socioeconomic indexes on the number of suicides in each province of Iran from 2001-2016. The data of socioeconomic variables were obtained from the statistical center of Iran, and data for the number of suicides in each province were obtained from the forensic science department. The analysis was conducted using estimated generalized least squares method by EViews version 8.

    Results: The lowest and highest number of suicides was in 2001 (4.97 per 100,000 populations) and 2004 (5.97 per 100,000 populations), respectively and the average rate of suicide from 2001 to 2013 was 1.01 also unemployment, divorce, and industrialization rates have high impact on suicides for both sexes in P<0.05.

    Conclusion: Living skills training should be provided to the members of the societies as a short-term plan and in the long-term, improving the economic condition of people should be conduct to reduce the number of suicides.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 65 | views: 94 | pages: 2317-2325

    Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. This study aimed to determine the relationship between risk factors and the incidence of colorectal cancer in Urbanization levels in Iran.

    Methods: This was a population-based study. Urbanization levels were determined using the census data of the Statistical Center in 2012. Data on risk factors for colorectal cancer were obtained from the information provided by the Iranian Non-Communicable Disease Control Center and the incidence of colorectal cancer from the data from the National Cancer Registry System. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between colorectal cancer risk factors and urbanization levels with colorectal cancer incidence. For statistical analysis, SPSS and Stata software were used. A significant level of P≤0.05 was considered.

    Results: The relationship between urbanization levels and risk factors with the incidence of colorectal cancer, nutrition Status, tobacco use, and body mass index were not significant. There was a significant relationship between physical activity and incidence at different levels and between levels of urbanization and incidence rate, indicating a lower incidence rate of colorectal cancer at lower levels of urbanization.

    Conclusion: Colorectal cancer incidence is higher at higher levels of urbanization than lower levels. The difference between regions in terms of urbanization can have in flounce on access to facilities, health service, and counseling opportunities to modify the risk factors and access to proper screening and follow-up care.

Case Report(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 69 | views: 101 | pages: 2326-2331

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) progresses rapidly in the later stage and has a poor prognosis. The treatments of CAEBV have no unified standard and a bad effect. Only few person could cure. It is important to diagnosis early. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) offers an effective means for the diagnosis of difficult, critical and rare pathogenic microbial infections. Here, we report a case of viral pleurisy caused by CAEBV identified by mNGS in an 88-year-old Chinese male patient.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 67 | views: 111 | pages: 2332-2336

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Cardiac involvement is rare especially without liver and lungs tissue involvement. We describe a 12-year-old male patient referred to Mofid Children's Hospital, Tehran, Iran in Jul 2020 due to chronic pericardial effusion and suspected tuberculosis infection from Afghanistan. Echocardiography revealed a cystic lesion in the interventricular septum. Thoracic and abdominal computed tomography showed no similar cystic lesion in the lungs and liver. The patient underwent open-heart surgery for cystectomy and medical treatment with albendazole. Histological examination confirmed hydatid cyst diagnosis. The patient was discharged in good condition and oral albendazole was continued.

Letter to the Editor