Iranian Journal of Public Health has been continuously published since 1971, in two languages (English and Persian). From 2001 issue, the Journal is published only in English language.

Iran J Public Health is published by Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). It is the official Publication of the Iranian Public Health Association and the School of Public Health, TUMS, Iran.

Current Issue

Vol 51 No 9 (2022)

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 177 | views: 153 | pages: 1916-1924

    Background: The purpose of this study was to present a plan for utilizing electroceuticals to secure social reliability in Korea by investigating and analyzing the trends of humanities and social science research in Korea regarding electroceuticals. 

    Methods: The present situation of academic papers in the fields of humanities and social sciences that had researched electroceuticals in Korea and the topics that were directly related to electroceuticals had been reviewed and analyzed.

    Results: Regarding researches related to electroceuticals in the fields of humanities and social sciences in Korea, they were insufficient quantitatively. Qualitatively, they had leaned too much toward theoretical and abstract discourses regarding neuroethics and neurophilosophy. 

    Conclusion: If researches in the fields of humanities and social sciences known to play a role in preparing practical guidelines could be carried out sufficiently while preparing a base for solving actual problems raised by electroceuticals, they could actually help plan a specific electroceuticals policy and a law to secure social reliability. Among principles of general life medical ethics (principles of biomedical ethics), when considering the principle of justice, the investment by the Korean government regarding research and development of electroceuticals, the rationalization of electroceuticals regulations, the application of electroceuticals of public health insurance benefit, and voluntary efforts of electroceuticals corporations are important in order to have strong plans for securing the social reliability of electroceuticals.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 83 | views: 113 | pages: 1925-1935

    Background: Chronic liver disease, complicated by portal hypertension (PH), may alter the extra-hepatic hemodynamic condition and spleen stiffness (SS). We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MRI-based elastographic methods (MRE) for detecting PH.

    Methods: Seven studies were included with reference to SS with regard to the prediction of PH patients. Major outcomes considered for data extraction were diagnostic parameters for MRI for concluding mild PH, clinically significant PH and severe PH. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane and Science Direct databases were used to extract the published literature through to May, 2021Using the Rayyan Zotero and R softwares

    Results: Out of 587 studies extracted, 7 were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. A QUADAS-2 assessment showed that all studies were clear in terms of patient selection and reference standard. A funnel plot showed that all the selected studies were outliers, indicating a low level of accuracy for the studies included. Subgroup analysis, with reference to SS as a predictor of PH, revealed raw mean difference (RMD) of 7.78% (95% CI 5.23-10.34, P<0.01). The corresponding RMD observed for <60 years and >60 yr were 34.26% (95% CI 9.33- 59.20, I2=100%,

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 103 | views: 105 | pages: 1936-1949

    Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients experience a variety of disease caused disabilities that makes them more vulnerable to the effects of disasters. This study aimed to review all existed studies about disasters and related disaster management planning about MS patients.

    Methods: The PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science, ProQuest, science direct , and grey literature databases were searched up to the mid of 2021. All obtained titles were assessed by the inclusion criteria. Abstracts of the relevant titles were reviewed and eligible articles/documents were included for full text review and data abstraction.

    Results: From 24616 Articles/documents, finally 15 documents (13 articles, and 2 books) were selected. In 8 articles (53%) specifically, focused on MS patients and, in the rest focused on them as a member of people with disabilities. Most studies (10, 71.4%), emphasized on the disaster induced stress effect on MS patients. In two books/book sections, the disaster preparedness plan for all types of disabilities was presented in general, and MS patients were mentioned as a member of the group of patients with disabilities.

    Conclusion: Despite the importance of planning in response to disasters to address specific problems of MS patients, there is a lack of proper planning. This is very important and there is an urgent need to develop appropriate planning protocols for addressing the special conditions of MS patients in response to disasters.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 49 | views: 65 | pages: 1950-1963

    Medical tourism is a new form of tourism grown significantly in recent years across the world and in Iran. The flow of medical tourism today is from developed countries to developing countries. Yet, demand volatility due to systematic risks can hurt industry players. The occurrence of systematic risks in the tourism industry, especially medical tourism, is common. The latest case of systemic risk is the COVID19 pandemic. The present study aimed to detect and study the factors that can help companies to be more resilient in the occurrence of systematic risks in the medical tourism industry. The Delphi method was used to summarize and analyze the industry managers’ perception of the above factors. The results of analyzing the perceptions of managers of companies operating in the medical tourism industry show that debt advantage, liquidity and profitability, and operational efficiency are the determinants that play the most important role in the resilience of companies against systematic risks. The role of advertising is also relatively agreed upon by the managers.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 49 | views: 46 | pages: 1964-1976

    Background: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases worldwide with a high impact on human and animal health. Body fluids such as milk are used to diagnose many parasitic diseases, including toxoplasmosis. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of milk as a non-invasive and alternative sample for serum in the diagnosis of animal toxoplasmosis.

    Methods: Five English-language databases (ScienceDirect, PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, and Web of Science) were explored for published articles before Dec 2020.

    Results: In total, 42 out of 2256 published articles were included in this systematic review. In 21 articles, serum and milk samples were evaluated simultaneously with serological or molecular tests, and the results were compared. The results of descriptive studies and a review of nine experimental studies showed that milk could be used as a non-invasive and alternative sample for the serum in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

    Conclusion: Due to the relatively high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in milk, consumption of raw milk from infected animals can be a potential source of human infection and a significant threat to public health. On the other hand, due to the ease and cheapness of collecting milk samples, the use of milk is recommended for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 66 | views: 86 | pages: 1977-1989

    Background: The Health Transformation Plan (HTP), as the latest reform of Iran's health system, has been implemented gradually in several phases to facilitate the achievement of universal health coverage. We aimed to identify the achievements and challenges of the HTP from the beginning of its implementation in Iran health system.

    Methods: In this qualitative systematic review, English papers were searched in PubMed, Scopus, Web of science, and Google Scholar search engines in addition to Persian databases such as Magiran and SID from 2014-2020. The Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) checklists were used to assess the quality of the studies. Study selection, quality assessment, data extraction, and data analysis were done independently by two people. For analyzing the data, the Framework Analysis Method, based on the health system function framework of the WHO, was used.

    Results: Overall, 32 papers were included based on the inclusion criteria. The results were divided into four main themes: stewardship, financing, resource generation and service delivery, and20 sub-themes in the form of achievements and challenges. Regulatory and standardization, service packages, medical equipment and supplies, and the quality of health services were more repetitive. Considering the challenges of HTP, purchase process, motivational factors, and health services capacity were more repetitive.

    Conclusion: The administrative challenges in the implementation of the HTP have prevented the sustainability of the outcomes and their main goals. The use of strategic dynamic planning, anticipating sustainable financial resources, and strengthening the monitoring mechanisms could lead to further achievements.

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 135 | views: 145 | pages: 1990-1998

    Background: Adolescence is a period of physical and psychological change that causes adolescents to experience anxiety, stress, and loss of control. These experiences can lead to thoughts about suicide. However, not all adolescents with suicidal thoughts attempt suicide. This study aimed to identify the factors that influence suicide attempts among adolescents with suicidal thoughts, and to prepare a theoretical basis for a method to prevent suicide among adolescents.

    Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the 15th Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (2019) was used. The participants were 7,498 adolescents aged 12-18 yr with thoughts of suicide. Factors influencing suicide attempts among adolescents with suicidal thoughts were analyzed using a complex sample logistic analysis.

    Results: Gender, age, academic performance, and economic level were the general factors associated with suicide attempts of adolescents with suicidal thoughts. Physical and psychological factors included smoking, alcohol use, drug use, sex-related experience, experiencing violence, efforts to reduce weight, level of physical activity, and depression.

    Conclusion: Age and gender should be taken into consideration when designing suicide prevention activities. In addition, in order to lower the suicide rate of adolescents in Korea, an effective system of prevention and intervention strategies should be implemented, which attend to the issues of adolescents from low-income families, adolescent weight and body image concerns, and adolescent depression.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 83 | views: 92 | pages: 1999-2006

    Background: We aimed to explore the relationship between the sleep and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) from the perspective of personality factors.

    Methods: Overall, 167 patients with IBS-– from First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University in Jiangsu Province of China in 2019 were included. Gastrointestinal Symptom Score (GIS), Chinese version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) were used to assess gastrointestinal symptoms, sleep and personality. We use mediator variables analyze to explore the relationship between sleep, neurotic personality and gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS patients.

    Results: 48.5% of IBS patients had sleep disorders. IBS patients with high neuroticism had higher total PSQI scores, longer sleep latency, worse sleep persistence, more nocturnal sleep disturbances and daytime dysfunctions, and more use of sleep medication (P<0.05). Stomach distention, cramping epigastric pain, loss of appetite, and epigastric pain were more prominent in IBS patients with high neuroticism (P<0.05). In addition, neurotic personality was significantly predictive of sleep and some gastrointestinal symptoms, and sleep was a complete mediator of neurotic personality and gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS patients.

    Conclusion: High neurotic personality in IBS patients leads to more prominent gastrointestinal symptoms by causing sleep disturbance.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 71 | views: 74 | pages: 2007-2016

    Background: The study aimed to analyze happiness levels and leisure life satisfaction related to participation in sports leisure activities, and the differences in satisfaction levels by the type of participation events and participants’ demographic backgrounds.

    Methods: This study was based on the 2020 Korea National Leisure Activities Survey using stratified multi-stage cluster sampling with a population over the age of 15 years and a nationwide survey. Moreover, a household visit interview survey was conducted from September 7 to November 16, 2020. A total of 10,088 people (5,003 males and 5,085 females) responded to the survey. Frequency analysis, chi-square test, independent t-test, and one-way analysis of variance were performed.

    Results: The analysis of the distribution of participants and the happiness level and overall leisure life satisfaction between participants in sports and non-sports leisure activities showed significant differences (P<0.05). Participants in sports leisure activities had higher levels of happiness and satisfaction with leisure activities than those in non-sports leisure activities. There were significant differences in satisfaction with participation in sports leisure activities by type of sports, age, educational level, marital status, and household income level (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: There were significant differences in participation in sports leisure activities by type of sports, age, educational level, marital status, and household income level, and the satisfaction level of participants in sports leisure activities differed according to these factors. This suggests that various educational efforts are required to combine physical education with sports leisure activities in school.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 73 | views: 98 | pages: 2017-2026

    Background: The prevalence of Type 1 Diabetes is increasing in pediatrics and diabetes education plays one of the most important role in the management of diabetes, especially in children. However, the related evidence concerned diabetes education is rare in children and adolescents. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the status of diabetes education in hospital, which could help us know the reality of diabetes education.

    Methods: We choose a nurse who is mainly responsible for diabetes education and management in each hospital to fill out the questionnaire. Overall, 98 nurses were enrolled from tertiary children's specialized hospitals and pediatric wards of general tertiary hospitals from Jan 2018 to Dec 2019.

    Results: Of 98 nurses enrolled, 61 (63.3%) nurses from 98 hospitals responded, 39 (63.9%) of them received specialized training in diabetes. There were no differences in education characteristics among regions of China. There were 26(42.6%) hospitals have a full-time nurse for diabetes education or nurses with endocrinology training increased with the number of cases/year (P=0.02 and P=0.009). The use of game-based education, knowledge assessment at discharge did not vary among hospital volumes, and the presence of a psychiatrist (P=0.41, P=0.65, and P=0.85, respectively). Diet management education is the most common (23.0%) difficulty in children diabetes education.

    Conclusion: The level of diabetes education in children and adolescents varied among hospitals, but not among regions in China. There was a lack of resources provided for children and adolescents diabetes education in terms of training and specialized services.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 57 | views: 79 | pages: 2027-2033

    Background: Urban parks play a noticeable role in city areas for making connections between nature and the residents of cities, especially from a mental health perspective. This paper investigated how the number and types of urban parks impact city residents' mental health.

    Method: This study used the data collected by the Community Health Survey in Seoul, South Korea in 2020 (n=22915). The type and number of local parks were categorized based on each district, and three variables of mental health were selected, including ‘subjective health awareness’, ‘stress awareness’ and ‘depression rate’. Correlation and interaction analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between variables.

    Result: The data indicated that both the quantity and types of the urban parks were associated with mental health of the residents. Positive mental health is likely to be associated with higher density of local parks in a district. It seems that parks characterized by children's activity and have nature-focused design, are more effective in changing the mental health of residents.

    Discussion: The research demonstrates a positive relationship between the quantity of urban parks and mental health in the scale of city districts. However, such a correlation can differ based on the type of parks, as well as the quantity of greenery in an area.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 54 | views: 77 | pages: 2034-2040

    Background: The internet is fast becoming one of the key instruments for seeking health-related information. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with internet use for health information among adults in the Russian Federation and to identify factors that explain its variation.

    Methods: The data were collected from the online survey conducted in Russian Federation on Aug-Sep 2020. A bivariate chi-square test was used to identify factors for further analysis. The binomial logistic regression model was fitted to the data to determine the relationship between dependent and independent variables.

    Results: Overall, 1319 adults’ survey submissions were analyzed. The binomial regression model showed women (OR 1.507, 95% CI 1.152–1.972), those with higher education level (OR 2.688, 95% CI 1.380–5.234), avid Internet users (3–4 h per day OR 2.187, 95% CI 1.383–3.460; 5+ h per day OR 2.361, 95% CI 1.475–3.781) are more likely to seek the health information on the Internet. Older participants (35–49 yr OR .701, 95% CI .498–.988; 50+ yr OR .624, 95% CI .430–.907) and those who live in rural areas (OR .469, 95% CI .308–.712) are less likely to use the internet for health information.

    Conclusion: It is important to promote health information-seeking behavior among men, older, less educated individuals, and those who live in rural areas. The improvement of digital skills and infrastructure may engage those who experience difficulties accessing health information over the internet.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 37 | views: 61 | pages: 2041-2047

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the effect of a psychological nursing intervention on inflammatory factors, negative emotions and quality of life in patients with breast cancer.

    Methods: Patients at the Cancer Hospital of China Medical University from January 2017 to January 2020 were stratified into two groups based on the way of nursing. Patients in the control group received routine care, and the experimental group received appropriate psychological care interventions in addition to routine care. We compared the inflammatory factors (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C reactive protein (CRP)), negative emotions (self-rating depression scale (SDS) and self-rating anxiety scale (SAS)) and quality of Life (short form-36 survey (SF-36)) between two groups.

    Results: A total of 226 patients with breast cancer were enrolled in this study. Before the intervention, the CRP, IL-6, SAS and SDS between two groups were not significantly different (t=0.205, 0.971, 0.590, 1.579; P=0.838, 0.332, 0.556, 0.116). After the intervention, the CRP, IL-6, SAS and SDS between two groups were decreased and significantly different (t=-17.648, -18.079,-18.267,-18.613; P<0.05) 

    Besides, the social function , physiological function, mental health, physical pain, physical limitation, vitality, emotional functions and overall health were improved and  significantly different between two groups after intervention (P<0.05).

    Conclusion: A psychological nursing Intervention has the beneficial effect on the inflammatory factors, negative emotions and quality of life in patients with breast cancer.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 40 | views: 81 | pages: 2048-2059

    Background: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) belongs to pigmentary retinopathies, a generic name for all retinal dystrophies with a major phenotypical and genotypical variation, characterized by progressive reduction of photoreceptor functionality of the rod and cone. Global prevalence of RP is ~ 1/4000 and it can be inherited as autosomal dominant (adRP), autosomal recessive (arRP) or X- linked (xlRP). We designed this study to identify causative mutations in Pakistani families affected with arRP.

    Methods: In 2019, we recruited two unrelated Pakistani consanguineous families affected with progressive vision loss and night blindness from Punjab region. Clinical diagnosis confirmed the; bone spicule pigmentation of the retina, and an altered electroretinogram (EGR) response. Proband and healthy individual from each family were subjected for whole-exome sequencing (WES).  Various computational tools were used to analyze the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) data and to predict the pathogenicity of the identified mutations.

    Results: WES data analysis highlighted two missense homozygous variants at position c.T1405A (p.S469T) in PLCE1 and c.T11C (p.V4A) in HPS1 genes in proband of both families. Healthy individuals of two families were tested negative for p.S469T and p.V4A mutations. The variant analysis study including molecular dynamic simulations predicted mutations as disease causing. 

    Conclusion: Compound effect of mutations in rarely linked PLCE1 and HPS1 genes could also cause RP. This study highlights the potential application of WES for a rapid and precise molecular diagnosis for heterogeneous genetic diseases such as RP.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 32 | views: 41 | pages: 2060-2068

    Background: During rehabilitation, patients with limb fracture should receive physical and psychological nursing. The study aimed to explore the intervention effect of the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior on the physical and psychological health of patients with limb fracture.

    Methods: Convenience sampling was used to recruit patients with limb fracture who underwent orthopedic treatment in three hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China from 2021-2022. In total, 118 volunteers were recruited and randomly divided into intervention (n = 60) and control (n = 58) group. The control group received routine treatment and nursing of limb fracture, whereas the intervention group received nursing intervention under the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior. The Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were used to evaluate the effect of nursing intervention under the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior.

    Results: The intervention group had significantly lower SDS, SAS, AIS, and VAS scores than the control group (P < 0.001) and significantly higher differences before and after treatment than the control group (P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: The Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior can effectively improve the physical and psychological health of patients with limb fracture.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 45 | views: 52 | pages: 2069-2077

    Background: A slouched lumbar posture during sitting is risk factor for the low back pain (LBP). Various chairs have been used to maintain sagittal lumbar lordosis and sacral alignment during sitting. We aimed to demonstrate the effect of a pelvic-support chair on the lumbar lordosis and sacral tilt in patients with LBP.

    Methods: We recruited 29 patients with non-specific LBP and 11 healthy subjects in South Korea from Apr 2017 to Mar 2018. The sagittal lumbosacral alignment was examined radiographically in three sitting postures: usual, erect, and sitting in a pelvic-support chair. Five angles [the lumbar lordosis, upper lumbar (ULA), lower lumbar (LLA), lumbosacral (LSA), and sacral slope (SS) angles] were compared between the subjects with LBP and healthy subjects in the three sitting conditions.

    Results: There were significant differences in the lumbar lordosis, ULA, LLA, LSA, and SS according to sitting condition (P<.05). All five angles were significantly greater when participants sat erect or in a pelvic-support chair than in their usual sitting position (P<.05). ULA and SS were significantly greater when sitting erect than in a pelvic-support chair (P<.05). LLA was significantly greater in controls than in patients with LBP (P=.042).

    Conclusion: The sagittal alignment of the lumbosacral region differed significantly among usual, erect, and pelvic-support chair sitting in patients with LBP and controls. Decreased lordotic curve of the lumbar spine in the usual sitting position can be changed in both patients with LBP and healthy subjects by sitting with pelvic support chair.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 30 | views: 45 | pages: 2078-2088

    Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) reinfection is common because of the limited cross-protection from infections of different enterovirus. We aimed to investigate the epidemiological characteristics and its influential factors of HFMD reinfection in Guangzhou, China.

    Methods: Data on HFMD patients aged ≤5 yr from 2012 to 2017 were extracted from surveillance system. Influential factors of reinfection were assessed using the logistic regression model.

    Results: Of 369,054 HFMD patients, 11,321 patients (3.07%) were classified as reinfection. The reinfection rate in male was higher than in female (χ2=60.11, P<0.001). The reinfection rate in patients ≤1 yr was 3.86%, which showed a downward trend with age (Z=37.37, Ptrend<0.001). The highest reinfection rate was observed in the scattered children (3.38%), followed by nursery care children and others (χ2=514.75, P<0.001). Besides, higher risk of reinfection was detected among those who were male, lower age group, rural residence and other enteroviruses infection compared with their respective counterparts. Seasonality was illustrated according to the number of reinfections peaked from April to July. Time intervals curves revealed the number of reinfections gradually increased after 13 months from the initial infection.

    Conclusion: Male ≤4 yr, living rural area, especially those lived scattered and infected with other enteroviruses were more likely to be reinfection.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 33 | views: 51 | pages: 2089-2098

    Background: The aim of this study was to reveal the longitudinal associations of health status (HS) and Self-rated Health (SRH) on mortality.

    Methods: Data from the Korea Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used in this study. The baseline data (2006) included 10,239 participants. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to verify the hypothesis.

    Results: The mortality was high when the health status was Bad and higher when the SRH was Bad. The HS‑Bad–SRH‑Bad group had the highest mortality. Middle-aged people with diseases had higher mortality than older people who perceived themselves as in Bad health. For older people, mortality was high for SRH‑Bad people of all health statuses.

    Conclusion: The results predict a high rate of mortality for middle-aged and older people with a combination of HS‑Bad and SRH‑Bad, with SRH being relatively more influential in mortality.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 23 | views: 39 | pages: 2099-2107

    Background: Hypertension is the main reason why the incidence of cardiovascular disease has increased year-by-year and early diagnosis of hypertension is necessary to reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease. This also puts forward higher requirements for the accuracy of diagnosis. We tried a variety of feature selection methods to improve the accuracy of logistic regression (LR).

    Methods: We collected 397 samples from Nanjing, Jiangsu, China between Jan 2016 and Dec 2017, including 178 hypertension samples and 219 control samples. It includes not only clinical and laboratory data, but also imaging data. We focused on the difference of imaging attributes between the control group and the hypertension group, and analyzed the correlation coefficients of all attributes. In order to establish the optimal LR model, this study tried three different feature selection methods, including statistical analysis, random forest (RF) and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) and accuracy were used as the main criterion for model evaluation.

    Results: In the prediction of hypertension, the performance of LR with RF as the feature selection method (accuracy: 0.910; AUC: 0.924) was better than the performance of LR with XGBoost as the feature selection method (accuracy: 0.897; AUC: 0.915) and the performance of LR with statistical analysis as the feature selection method (accuracy: 0.872; AUC: 0.926).

    Conclusion: LR with RF as the feature selection method may provide accurate results in predicting hypertension. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and pulse wave velocity at the end of systole (ESPWV) are two key imaging indicators in the prediction of hypertension.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 44 | views: 56 | pages: 2108-2116

    Background: Prostate cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in men. This study was carried out to determine effective factors on the survival rate of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer in Kerman, Iran.

    Methods: The present study was conducted as a retrospective cohort of 238 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2011 to 2019 in Kerman, Iran. First, the demographic and clinical information of patients were collected. Then, the information on patient survival up to June 2019 was tracked, and their latest statuses of death or survival were recorded. Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Bayesian Weibull parametric accelerated failure- time model were used for data analysis. Data analysis was carried out by Stata and SAS.

    Results: The mean age of patients in the diagnosis was 73.28±10.08 year. The patient’s 1, 2, 3 and 5-years of overall survival rates were equal to 78.54%, 65.97%, 56.64% and 49.30, respectively. Patients under surgical therapy relatively held longer survival times compared to the rest of the therapies. Patients under chemotherapy had shorter survival times. Age at diagnosis, occupation, chemotherapy, surgery, education, and smoking variables significantly affected patients’ survival (P<0.05).

    Conclusion: Patients' survival duration increases if the disease is diagnosed at younger ages and its preliminary development stages. Smoking cessation is strongly recommended after diagnosis, as it is associated with a lower survival rate. Patients who underwent radical prostatectomy surgery showed higher survival rates than radiotherapy, hormone ablation, or chemotherapy. Moreover, patients with higher education had more prolonged survival.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 22 | views: 48 | pages: 2117-2127

    Background: Non-coding RNA played one pivotal role in NSCLC in terms of pathogenesis and progression. We aimed to determine the LncRNA, which can be one new potential target for NSCLC treatment and its possible mechanisms from Jan 2017 to Aug 2020.

    Methods: Gene LOC285758, which produced new cells in tumor cellular system, was knocked out. Its specific effects were tested in terms of cellular phenotype. LOC285758 was chosen to target for miRNA as well as downstream mRNA targeted by miRNA, which verified the combination predicted before. Specific impacts brought from miRNA on NSCLC cells were examined. At last, dynamic impacts produced through miRNA and LOC285758 on mRNA expression and NSCLC cellular phenotype were examined.

    Results: LOC285758 expression was up-regulated in tissues and cells from NSCLC. Knocking out gene LOC285758 could repress cellular survival and migration of A549 and H292 cells. miRNA-204 was repressed via LOC285758 targeting. miRNA-204 over-expressing repressed invasion ability of NSCLC cells and CDK6 targeted by miRNA-204. CDK6 knocking out suppressed survival and migration of NSCLC cells. The influence brought from gene LOC285758 knocking out could be reversed through suppressing miRNA-204, causing up-regulated CDK6 as well as LOC285758 expression in NSCLC tissues. miRNA-204 was negatively correlated with CDK6 as well as LOC285758, respectively. Nonetheless, CDK6 possessed the positive relationship with LOC285758.

    Conclusion: An axis of lncRNA LOC285758/miRNA-204/CDK6 can modulate NSCLC cells in terms of migration as well as survival.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 65 | views: 71 | pages: 2128-2134

    Background: Rabies disease is zoonotic disease-causing encephalitis and resulting in death. It is possible to prevent the disease with suitable prophylaxis approaches. This study examined the compliance of post-exposure prophylaxis approaches with the guidelines and the reasons for non-compliance in contact cases at risk of rabies.

    Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study includes patients who continued the vaccination program from 2014-2018 at the Ordu University Medical Faculty Hospital Rabies Vaccination Center in Ordu, Turkey. Cases were assessed in terms of sociodemographic features, previous rabies vaccination history, features of the contact with rabies risk, attendance duration after contact, and whether all stages of prophylaxis were completed after contact.

    Results: Of the 748 cases attending the vaccination center, the age range was 1- 91 yr, with a mean age of 28.12 ± 21.60 yr. Of cases, 62.3% were male (n =466) and 37.7% were female (n =282). Of risky contact, 60% comprised stray animals. Of recorded cases, 55.2% displayed approaches compatible with guidelines. Among incompliant approaches, the most frequent was administering vaccines even though observation was sufficient. (n = 174, 52%).

    Conclusion: Contact with risk of rabies may result in insufficient administration of the stages in prophylaxis after contact, or contrarily, mistaken administration based on acting with a sense of excessive safety. Stray dogs or domestic animals without sufficient vaccinations comprise a significant risk despite all efforts. In order to prevent risky contact, there is a need for the development of correct strategies and to ensure continuity of in-service training for health professionals.


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