2019 Impact Factor: 1.291
2019 CiteScore: 0.9
Chairman & Editor-in-Chief:
Dariush D. Farhud, MD, Ph.D., MG.
Vol 50 No 3 (2021)
At present, COVID-19 continues to spread around the world. People are generally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. The elderly, serious chronic underlying diseases, high-risk pregnancy, severe obesity and other factors are related to the progression of COVID-19 to severe, critical illness, and even death caused by deterioration of the disease. The relationship between smoking and COVID-19 seems to be controversial. The smoking rate of hospitalized COVID-19 patients is significantly lower than that of the general population. Therefore, smoking can reduce COVID-19 infection and protect the respiratory tract. Subsequently, many scholars have carried out research on this, thinking that this is a wrong and misleading conclusion. According to WHO, smoking is significantly related to the severity of COVID-19, which is one of the important risk factors for the deterioration and poor prognosis of COVID-19. This article reviews the mechanism of smoking increasing the risk of COVID-19 infection.
Background: Due to the increasing prevalence of infertility, the number of referrals to infertility treatment centers has also increased. Nowadays, assisted reproductive technology (ART), including in vitro fertilization (IVF), is a treatment for infertility or genetic problems. Considering the possible consequences of this method among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and kids conceived by IVF, extensive research has been conducted in this regard.
Methods: Overall, 100 articles were entered into the study, and relevant articles were searched and extracted from PubMed, Springer, and Google Scholar databases. In IVF procedure, medications such as Clomiphene citrate and gonadotropins are used to stimulate and mature follicles and thus increase ovulation.
Results: There are conflicting opinions on this issue. Some findings report a slight increase in cancer risk for hormone-sensitive cancers including breast cancer. The long-term use of IVF medications can increase estrogen hormones and cause excessive expression of genes, resulting in an increased risk of breast cancer, which is one of the most frequent cancers among women.
Conclusion: There are some risks to be aware of, which followed the hypothesis that long IVF treatment process may lead to breast cancer among IVF candidates. Furthermore, the risk of breast cancer may be increased in those women with a positive family history and related inherited genes. Therefore, women candidates for IVF should be informed of the probable implications of the reproductive therapy techniques.
Background: Adolescents and children are a core target population for health literacy (HL) studies and practice. There is limited knowledge regarding the HL skills and abilities that help young people and children in making health decisions. This study aimed to evaluate the status of HL in ongoing school students.
Methods: Literature searching was performed using nine databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Iranmedex, Magiran, Scientific Information Database) without restriction in time until January 2019, and database searches were supplemented with reference hand searches and gray literature. Cross-sectional and experimental studies with focuses on validated measures of HL in ongoing students were included.
Results: This systematic review of identified 17 studies and 199714 samples specifically studied on ongoing school students aged 6-18 years. Students and their mothers have a moderate level of HL in four dimensions of menstrual health, physical activity, breast self-test, and iron deficiency anemia, and most of them have a high level of HL only in terms of nutrition. The relationship of HL with health outcomes, health promotion behaviors, self-efficacy, self-mutilating behaviors, and self-care abilities was statistically significant. HL status is related to parents’ education level, socio-economic determinants (culture, family income, and environmental contextual factors), age groups, and media/digital communication channels.
Conclusion: This review identified seven main determinates that significantly affect HL status in the target group. This systematic review shows most of the ongoing school students had an inadequate level of HL skills. HL strategies have a potential impact on improving students’ health behaviors and life quality.
Background: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by seizures and recurrent attacks. Self-management leads to seizure control and maximizes the quality of life in epileptic patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of applications available in the epileptic google play store based on the rating features of MARS (Mobile Applications Rating Scale).
Methods: The search was conducted systematically using the keywords "epilepsy", "seizure", "mobile health" at the Android google play store. Data were extracted and analyzed from Feb 2018 to Apr 2019.
Results: Accordingly, 45 apps were identified potentially relevant of which 20 met inclusion criteria. Twenty-five apps were excluded because they were unrelated to epilepsy self-management, or not Development for people with epilepsy, not in English language or were not free and available. The total mean MARS score was 3.21 out of 5, and more than half of apps (17, 85%) had a minimum acceptability score of 3.0. The mean of apps’ items were 3.27 in Engagement, 3.96 in function, 3.30 in Aesthetics, 2.96 in Information and 2.73 in subjective quality items.
Conclusion: Few apps meet prespecified criteria for quality, content, and functionality for epilepsy self-management. Despite the rapid evolution of self-management apps, lack of validation studies is a significant concern that limits the clinical value of these apps. Moreover, having a guideline and benchmarking in the field of mobile application development, in epilepsy management, can help analyze the content of established applications.
The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused COVID-19 has developed into an unexampled worldwide pandemic. The most important cause of death in patients with COVID-19 is Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Opium is widely used for its analgesic features in control of acute and chronic pain related to different diseases. Opium consumption is increased over the last three decades and leads to adverse effects on the respiratory system; opium also affects the lungs' functions and respiration. The contemplative issue is the higher mortality rate due to SARS-CoV-2 infection in opium addicts’ patients. Studies have shown that despite the decrease in proinflammatory cytokines production in opium addicts, there are at least 4 reasons for this increase in mortality rate: downregulation of IFNs expression, development of pulmonary edema, increase thrombotic factors, increase the expression of Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Therefore, identifying the causes of mortality and approved therapies for the treatment of COVID-19 patients who use opium for any reason is an important unmet need to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection-related mortality. This review study demonstrated the effects of opium on immune responses and the reasons for the higher mortality rate in opium addicts’ patients with COVID-19.
Background: Food store measurement is important for planners and policy makers to improve unhealthy stores towards healthy stores. This review aimed to outline the concepts and measures development of checklists that assess food store environment in urban communities.
Methods: The search was carried out in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus as well as reference lists of included studies for obtaining published articles between 1990 up to the date of search (30 June 2017). Eligibility criteria attempted to capture peer-reviewed articles aimed at development and validation of checklists for assessing food stores.
Results: From 3,862 records, 24 studies were included in this review. Findings showed constructs included in the instruments were availability (n=22); price (n=22); quality of fresh foods (n=13); promotion (n=6); product placement (n=6); advertisement (n=5); shelf space (n=3); display (n=3); store features or characteristics (n=2); marketing (n=2); accessibility; nutrition information; visibility; food variety; signage. There are differences on the conceptual definition of each constructs across the checklists. Only half of studies pursued fully systematic steps for the measures development.
Conclusion: Consensus for definition of constructs of food store measurement is necessary. Besides, the development of the measures of checklists needs to be done by high-quality methods.
Background: Smokeless tobacco use is a public health problem in some parts of the world. The major objective of this study was to investigate the reasons and factors of consumption.
Methods: A content analysis was conducted on articles for the past thirty years (1989-2019). We reviewed and selected 400 abstracts of original articles from PubMed databases by the search strategy, and reviewed one by one. Among these, 45 abstracts were selected, in which the patterns of use, the reasons for using, and the determinants and predictors were described. Eleven papers were selected based on the results and related to the research objectives. The results of these articles were evaluated precisely word by word and phrase by phrase with content analysis method and inductive approach.
Results: The reasons for the use of smokeless tobacco fell in two main themes: socio-cultural structure; and, beliefs, each contained Sub-themes such as "culture and living conditions", "laws", "family and peer relationships", "beliefs related to psychological" and "beliefs related to physical influences", "beliefs", "The role of harm perceptions ".
Conclusion: There was a difference between beliefs, cultures and social conditions among the people about using of smokeless tobacco and the association of these factors is investigated in future studies. We also suggest for the prevention and control of smokeless tobacco use, cultural norms and beliefs will need to address adequately.
Background: To detect the serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.
Methods: We analyzed the relationship between the PCT Level and dialysis adequacy. We studied 120 peritoneal dialysis patients without signs of infection in Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital and 120 controls from Jan 2014 to Apr 2016. PCT and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were detected. 120 PD patients were divided into two groups according to the dialysis adequacy. A correlation analysis was processed between the PCT level and the total solute clearance (Kt/V). The value of PCT for identifying the dialysis adequacy in PD patients was assessed by ROC curve analysis.
Results: PCT level in serum of PD group (0.29±0.24 ng/ml) was higher than that of the control group (0.02±0.01 ng/ml) (P<0.01). Compared with the inadequate dialysis group (0.5±0.37 ng/ml), the PCT Level of the adequate dialysis group (0.23±0.15 ng/ml) was lower (P<0.01). There were negative correlations between PCT and Kt/v(r=-0.451), Prealbumin (PA) (r=-0.258), Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR; r=-0.280), while there was positive correlation between PCT and Hypersensitive c-reactive protein (r=0.458) (P<0.01). At a serum PCT cut-off value of 0.283 ng/ml, the sensitivity and specificity for identifying the dialysis adequacy in PD patients were 0.913 and 0.805 respectively. The serum levels of PCT in peritoneal dialysis patients were significantly higher than the levels in healthy controls.
Conclusion: The serum level of PCT can be used as an indirect maker to evaluate the adequacy of dialysis.
Background: To investigate the expression levels of microRNA-146b (miR-146b) and cardiac troponin I (anti-cTnI) in serum of children with viral myocarditis and their clinical significance.
Methods: Forty-eight children with viral myocarditis (patient group) and 40 healthy physical examinees (healthy group), who were diagnosed in Jinan City People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, China from Feb 2018 to May 2019, were enrolled as study subjects. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the level of miR-146b in serum of children. ELISA was used to detect the expression of anti-cTnI in serum of children. Pearson was used to analyze the correlation between the level of miR-146b and the level of anti-cTnI, and the factors affecting the prognosis.
Results: The levels of miR-146b and anti-cTnI in serum of children in patient group were statistically significantly higher than those of healthy group (P<0.01). The AUC of miR-146b was 0.741, (95% CI: 0.638-0.843), the specificity was 62.50%, the sensitivity was 82.50%, and the AUC of anti-cTnI was 0.720 (95% CI: 0.608-0.832), the specificity was 64.58% and the sensitivity was 92.50%. The level of miR-146b was positively correlated with the level of anti-cTnI (r=0.601, P<0.05). CK-MB, LVEF, miR-146b and anti-cTnI expression were independent risk factors affecting the prognosis.
Conclusion: The levels of miR-146b and anti-cTnI increased in serum of patients with viral myocarditis. They were related to the degree of myocardial injury, which indicated that miR-146b and anti-cTnI might be involved in the pathological process of viral myocarditis.
Background: We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of sodium valproate combined with levetiracetam on pediatric epilepsy and the effects of nerve growth factor and γ-aminobutyric acid.
Methods: Eighty-three epileptic children admitted to Xuzhou Municipal Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University (Xuzhou, China) from Jan 2018 to Nov 2019 were collected and divided into a control group (40 cases, treated with sodium valproate alone) and an observation group (43 cases, treated with sodium valproate combined with levetiracetam). The therapeutic effect and incidence of adverse reactions were observed. The levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) of children were compared. Changes of cognitive function and the total effective rate were evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors affecting the therapeutic effect.
Results: After treatment, NGF, GABA and NSE in the observation group were significantly improved compared with those before treatment. The cognitive function of the observation group was significantly improved after treatment when compared with the control group. The total effective rate in the observation group was higher than that in the control group. Adverse reactions in the observation group were less than those in the control group. Seizure type, NGF, GABA, NSE and treatment methods were independent risk factors affecting the therapeutic effect of pediatric epilepsy.
Conclusion: The application of sodium valproate combined with levetiracetam in the treatment of pediatric epilepsy is helpful to improve the overall therapeutic effect, significantly improve the cognitive function of children, and improve the levels of NGF, GABA and NSE.
Background: To explore the intervention degree and improvement effect of group reminiscence therapy in combination with physical exercise on spiritual well-being of the elderly after the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic.
Methodology: In 2020, overall, 130 elderly people were selected from communities in Xiangtan City and Changsha City of Hunan Province, China and randomly divided into two groups, with 65 people in each group. One group was the experimental group that participated in the exercise intervention for 8 weeks as the objects of group reminiscence therapy intervention in combination with physical exercise. The other group was the control group that listened to 4 routine health lectures. Spirituality Index of Well-Being, ULS Loneliness Scale and Brief Resilience Scale were used to evaluate the effect of the intervention.
Results: Before the intervention, there was no significant difference between the experimental group and the control group, but after 8 weeks of exercise intervention, the score of loneliness was lower in the experimental group than in the control group (P<0.05), the scores of spiritual well-being and resilience were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (P<0.05); and the differences before and after the intervention were significantly higher in the experimental group than the control group (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Group reminiscence therapy in combination with physical exercise could improve spiritual well-being and mental health of the elderly.
Background: We aimed to investigate the effect of a 12-week dry-land core training program on physical fitness and swimming performance in elite adolescent swimmers.
Methods: Thirty subjects were selected and assigned to the core training group (CTG, n=15) and the traditional weight training group (WTG, n=15) in Seoul, Korea, between Sep and Dec 2016. The field fitness test was performed to determine the isotonic maximum muscular strength (one repetition maximum of deadlift and cable pulldown), anaerobic power (Wingate test), core stability (sports-specific endurance plank), core muscular power (front abdominal power, side abdominal power), muscular endurance of limbs (push-up, endurance jump), and swim performance improvement (personal record). Differences between groups after the exercise intervention were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures.
Results: There were no significant interactions in isotonic maximum strength, anaerobic power (mean power, fatigue index), core muscular power, muscular endurance of limbs (endurance jump), and swim record improvement (P>0.05). The anaerobic peak power (P<0.001), sports-specific endurance plank test (P<0.001), and push-up test (P<0.001) showed significant interaction effects.
Conclusion: The 12-week dry-land core training program resulted in statistically significant improvements in anaerobic power, core stability, upper extremity muscular endurance, and swimming performance.
Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is responsible for up to 85% of deaths associated with lung cancer. Chemotherapy is still an important treatment method on the treatment of inoperable cases. In this study, the anticancer properties of a series of Schiff bases were tested on the A549 cell line representing NSCLC.
Methods: Fluorinated Schiff bases (compounds 1-6) were synthesized based on 2-amino phenylhydrazines and benzaldehydes containing fluorine were used. The cytotoxic effects of the compounds on the A549 cell line were determined by colorimetric MTT assay and the antiproliferative effects of the compounds on the A549 cell line by the CFSE method. To demonstrate the development of apoptosis, cleaved caspase-3 expression in cells was tested using the immunofluorescence method. Morphological changes indicating apoptosis in cells were determined by histopathological staining methods (H & E, giemza, PAP).
Results: The strongest cytotoxic effect on A549 lung cancer cells was obtained with compound 6 (IC50: 0.64 μM) containing 5 fluorine atoms. The strongest antiproliferative effect on A549 cells was achieved with compound 5 (PI: 4.95) carrying 2 fluorine atoms. Apoptosis induction was effective in cell death. In addition to cleaved caspase-3 expression, chromatin condensation, marginalization, and apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells.
Conclusion: Some of the compounds tested showed high cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects, indicating that these compounds could be potential chemotherapeutic agent candidates for lung cancer. The result of immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analysis showing that the cytotoxic effects have been induced by apoptosis is an important advantage.
Background: We aimed to verify the structural relationship between sports participation, ego-resilience, and health-promoting behavior of Korean adolescents in a pandemic situation.
Methods: In Nov 2020, an online survey was conducted with 751 adolescents in Korea. The data obtained through the survey were analyzed in several ways, including frequency, reliability, confirmatory factor, descriptive statistical, and path analyses.
Results: Sports participation had a positive effect on ego-resilience and health-promoting behavior, while ego-resilience has a positive effect on health-promoting behavior. Overall, sports participation directly affects health-promoting behavior and that an indirect effect occurs through ego-resilience.
Conclusion: Educational institutions such as schools and the Korea Offices of Education should devise various measures so that adolescents growing up in a global pandemic situation can strengthen their health-promoting behavior by securing ego-resilience through participation in various sports.
Background: To explore the effects of risk factors-based nursing management on the occurrence of pressure sores in hospitalized patients.
Methods: From Jan 2018 to Jun 2018, 289 hospitalized patients were divided into pressure sores group  and control group  for retrospective analysis. Overall, 260 hospitalized patients from Jun 2018 to Dec 2018 were followed up for nursing intervention. Overall 130 patients received risk factors-based nursing case management were in the intervention group, whereas 130 patients who received routine nursing care were in the control group. The chi-square test and t-test were used to compare the count data and the measurement data between groups, respectively.
Results: Age, body weight and proportions of patients with impaired nutritional intake, diabetes or stroke in pressure sores group were higher than those in normal group (P<0.05). Hospital stay and operative time in pressure sores group was longer than those in normal group (P<0.05). The frequency of assistant activity in pressure sores group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05).In addition, the score of uroclepsia in pressure sores group was lower than that in normal group (P<0.05). Patients in the intervention group showed lower risk for pressure sores and more satisfied than patients in control group (P<0.001).
Conclusion: Advanced age, high body weight, diabetes and stroke, long hospital stay, long operative time, poor nutritional status and severe uroclepsia were independent risk factors of pressure sores. Risk factors-based nursing case management can effectively reduce the occurrence and risk of pressure sores for hospitalized patients.
Background: Chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) is one of the most prevalent types of leukemia, which is responsible for a remarkable mortality rate in the world. This study aimed to investigate the global trend of this cancer from 1990 to 2015 and to determine the relationship between trend of CLL mortality rate and Human Development Index (HDI) throughout the world.
Methods: The age-standardized mortality rate data of all countries of the world (per 100,000) were extracted from the GBD database. In addition, the HDI values for the studied countries in different years were obtained from the UNDP database. The statistical analysis was performed using the mixed-effects location-scale model in the SAS software, version 9.4.
Results: The findings of the statistical modeling showed a downward slope for CLL Age Standardized Mortality Rate (ASMR) for total world countries ( ). We also find a significant association between CLL ASMR and HDI. Countries with higher HDI had higher level of CLL ASMR in years 1990 to 2015 with a negative slope. Furthermore, countries with lower HDI had Lower level of CLL ASMR with rather fixed rates in this period.
Conclusion: These findings showed a decreasing trend of global CLL ASMR in the previous decades, although, the fixed trend of CLL ASMR in countries with low HDI is worrisome. The health policymakers should make more efforts to decrease the mortality due to this cancer in these countries.
Background: CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is introduced as an immune response modulator. The activity of CCR5 influences breast tumour development in a p53-dependent manner. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of CCR5delta32 and its association with the risk of breast cancer in 1038 blood samples in North East of Iran.
Methods: In this case-control study, we genotyped 570 control samples and 468 breast cancer patients by a gel electrophoresis-based gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) method Mashhad, Iran. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software.
Results: Of 570 controls included, 542 (95.09%) had CCR5delta32 wild/wild(W/W) genotype, 28 samples (4.91%) had CCR5delta32 wild/deletion (W/D) genotype and none of them were CCR5delta32 deletion/deletion (D/D) genotype (0%). While 428 samples of patients (91.45%) had CCR5delta32 W/W genotype, 40 samples (8.55%) had CCR5delta32 W/D and CCR5delta32 D/D homozygous was nil (0%) amongst cases. All samples were in the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). According to the allele frequency, D allele, as a risky allele, in the cases was more than the control samples (0.0427 vs 0.0245, respectively) (P=0.0206). Hence, W/D genotype may confer a risk effect (OR=1.77, CI: 1.09-2.90; P=0.0206) compared with WW genotype between case and control groups.
Conclusion: There is a statistically significant association between CCR5W/D and breast cancer risk. CCR5 may be regarded as a target for the prevention of breast cancer in certain conditions such as interaction with p53 variants, which remains to be further investigated.
Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most important helminthic parasitic diseases in Iran. The current study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of CE in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran in 2018.
Methods: The study was carried out in seven cities of North Khorasan Province. Venous blood samples were collected from 932 individuals referring to health centers of those seven cities. A questionnaire was used to obtain the data regarding the subject's gender, age, residence and risk factors linked to the hydatid cyst. Sera samples were evaluated for anti-hydatid cyst antibodies in an ELISA system, using a recombinant B8/1 antigen of E. granulosus.
Results: Of the 932 recruited subjects, 496 (53.2%) were male and 436 (46.8%) were female. The range of participants’ age was between 11 to 83 yr old and the mean age of the subjects was 35.4 (±12.7) years. Anti-hydatid cyst antibodies were detected in the sera of 37 out of 932 subjects, corresponding to a seroprevalence rate of 3.96%. From these, 20 (54.05%) were male and 17 (45.95%) were female. There were no associations between seropositivity to hydatid cyst and age, the gender of the participants, residential areas and having contact with dogs (P>0.05).
Conclusion: CE is relatively prevalent throughout the North Khorasan Province in the Northeast of Iran. Rate of CE infection in this Province is somewhat similar to the rate of infection in other parts of the country.
Background: The low breast cancer survival rates in less developed countries are critical. The machine learning techniques predict cancers survival with high accuracy. Missing data are the most important limitation for using the highest potential of these techniques to predict cancers survival. Multiple imputation (MI) was implemented and analyzed in detail to impute the missing data of a breast cancer dataset.
Methods: The dataset was from The Omid Treatment and Research Center Urmia, Iran between Jan 2006 and Dec 2012 and had information from 856 women. The algorithms such as C5 and repeated incremental pruning to produce error reduction were applied on the imputed versions of the original dataset and the non-imputed dataset to predict and extract clinical rules, respectively.
Results: The findings showed the performance of C5 in all the evaluation criteria including accuracy (84.42%), sensitivity (92.21%), specificity (64%), Kappa statistic (59.06%), and the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (0.84), was improved after imputation.
Conclusion: The dataset of the present study met the requirements for using the multiple imputation method. The extracted rules after the application of MI were more comprehensive and contained knowledge that is more clinical. However, the clinical value of the extracted rules after filling in the missing data did not noticeably increase.
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder. Oxidative stress is a main modulator in the advancement of PD. This investigation aimed to evaluate the relations between serum trace elements, vitamin C, ferritin, transferrin, Nitrite Oxide (NOx) and Peroxynitrite (PrN) concentrations and clinical parameters in patients with PD.
Methods: Serum concentrations of variables were measured in 75 PD patients and 75 healthy subjects from Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran between Feb 2016 and Sep 2018. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to examine incremental diagnostic value of vitamin C, NOx, and PrN in the study groups.
Results: Mean serum NOx (35.81±5.16 vs. 11.27±3.59 mol/L, P<0.001) and PrN (15.78±4.23 vs. 9.62±4.57 mol/L, P= 0.004) were markedly higher in patient group versus healthy individuals. Significant differences were also observed in the serum levels of vitamin C (P<0.001), copper (Cu) (P<0.001), Iron (Fe) (P=0.003), and Zinc (Zn) (P<0.001) between patients with PD and healthy subjects. Nevertheless, the serum levels of Se (P=0.515), ferritin (P=0.103), and transferrin (P=0.372) were not statistically significant between the study groups. ROC analysis has revealed a diagnostic ability of serum vitamin C levels for PD with an area under ROC curve of ≥0.7 (P<0.05) and relatively high sensitivity and specificity.
Conclusion: Serum levels of NOx and PrN are significantly higher in patients with PD. In additions, serum vitamin C levels have a diagnostic value as a biomarker. Further studies are required with larger sample size to provide more detailed information about the cognitive profile of participants and the outcome measures.
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