Review Article

Defining and Developing Measures of Checklist for Measuring Food Store Environment: A Systematic Review


Background: Food store measurement is important for planners and policy makers to improve unhealthy stores towards healthy stores. This review aimed to outline the concepts and measures development of checklists that assess food store environment in urban communities.

Methods: The search was carried out in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus as well as reference lists of included studies for obtaining published articles between 1990 up to the date of search (30 June 2017). Eligibility criteria attempted to capture peer-reviewed articles aimed at development and validation of checklists for assessing food stores.

Results: From 3,862 records, 24 studies were included in this review. Findings showed constructs included in the instruments were availability (n=22); price (n=22); quality of fresh foods (n=13); promotion (n=6); product placement (n=6); advertisement (n=5); shelf space (n=3); display (n=3); store features or characteristics (n=2); marketing (n=2); accessibility; nutrition information; visibility; food variety; signage. There are differences on the conceptual definition of each constructs across the checklists. Only half of studies pursued fully systematic steps for the measures development.

Conclusion: Consensus for definition of constructs of food store measurement is necessary. Besides, the development of the measures of checklists needs to be done by high-quality methods.

1. Gustafson A, Hankins S, Jilcott S (2012). Measures of the consumer food store environment: a systematic review of the evidence 2000-2011. J Community Health, 37(4):897-911.
2. Treuhaft S, Karpyn A (2010). The grocery gap: Who has access to healthy food and why it matters. Oakland, CA and Philadelphia, PA, PolicyLink and The Food Trust, pp. 5-24.
3. Hawkes C (2008). Dietary implications of supermarket development: a global perspective. Dev Policy Rev, 26(6):657-92.
4. Bell J, Mora G, Hagan E, et al (2013). Access to healthy food and why it matters: A review of the research. PolicyLink, pp. 4-20.
5. Glanz K, Sallis JF, Saelens BE, Frank LD (2005). Healthy nutrition environments: concepts and measures. Am J Health Promot, 19(5):330-3.
6. Ohri-Vachaspati P, Leviton LC (2010). Measuring food environments: a guide to available instruments. Am J Health Promot, 24(6):410-26.
7. McKinnon RA, Reedy J, Morrissette MA, et al (2009). Measures of the food environment: a compilation of the literature, 1990-2007. Am J Prev Med, 36(4 Suppl):S124-33.
8. Lytle LA, Sokol RL (2017). Measures of the food environment: A systematic review of the field, 2007-2015. Health Place, 44:18-34.
9. Glanz K, Johnson L, Yaroch AL, et al (2016). Measures of retail food store environments and sales: review and implications for healthy eating initiatives. J Nutr Educ Behav, 48(4):280-8.e1.
10. Kelly B, Flood VM, Yeatman H (2011). Measuring local food environments: an overview of available methods and measures. Health Place, 17(6):1284-93.
11. Gebremariam MK, Vaqué-Crusellas C, Andersen LF, et al (2017). Measurement of availability and accessibility of food among youth: a systematic review of methodological studies. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 14(1):22.
12. Gamba RJ, Schuchter J, Rutt C, Seto EY (2015). Measuring the food environment and its effects on obesity in the United States: a systematic review of methods and results. J Community Health,40(3):464-75.
13. Caspi CE, Sorensen G, Subramanian S, Kawachi I (2012). The local food environment and diet: a systematic review. Health Place, 18(5):1172-87.
14. Engler-Stringer R, Le H, Gerrard A, et al (2014). The community and consumer food environment and children’s diet: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 14:522.
15. de Vet HCW, Terwee CB, Mokkink LB, Knol DL (2011). Measurement in Medicine: A Practical Guide. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
16. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, et al (2010). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Int J Surg, 8(5):336-41.
17. Vaughn AE, Tabak RG, Bryant MJ, Ward DS (2013). Measuring parent food practices: a systematic review of existing measures and examination of instruments. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 10:61.
18. Cavanaugh E, Mallya G, Brensinger C, et al (2013). Nutrition environments in corner stores in Philadelphia. Prev Med, 56(2):149-51.
19. Cohen DA, Schoeff D, Farley TA, et al (2007). Reliability of a store observation tool in measuring availability of alcohol and selected foods. J Urban Health, 84(6):807-13.
20. Giskes K, Van Lenthe FJ, Brug J, et al (2007). Socioeconomic inequalities in food purchasing: the contribution of respondent-perceived and actual (objectively measured) price and availability of foods. Prev Med, 45(1):41-8.
21. Horowitz CR, Colson KA, Hebert PL, Lancaster K (2004). Barriers to buying healthy foods for people with diabetes: evidence of environmental disparities. Am J Public Health, 94(9):1549-54.
22. Izumi BT, Findholt NE, Pickus HA, et al (2014). Inter-rater reliability of a food store checklist to assess availability of healthier alternatives to the energy-dense snacks and beverages commonly consumed by children. Child Obes,10(3):266-71.
23. DeWeese RS, Todd M, Karpyn A, et al (2018). Short-Form Audit Instrument for Assessing Corner Store Healthfulness. Am J Health Promot, 32(1): 224-232.
24. Hua J, Seto E, Li Y, Wang MC (2014). Development and evaluation of a food environment survey in three urban environments of Kunming, China. BMC Public Health, 14:235.
25. Lo BK, Minaker LM, Mah CL, Cook B (2016). Development and Testing of the Toronto Nutrition Environment Measures Survey–Store (ToNEMS-S). J Nutr Educ Behav, 48(10):723-729.e1.
26. Partington SN, Menzies TJ, Colburn TA, et al (2015). Reduced-item food audits based on the nutrition environment measures surveys. Am J Prev Med, 49(4):e23-33.
27. Gloria CT, Steinhardt MA (2010). Texas nutrition environment assessment of retail food stores (TxNEA-S): development and evaluation. Public Health Nutr, 13(11):1764-72.
28. Martins PA, Cremm EC, Leite FH, et al (2013). Validation of an adapted version of the nutrition environment measurement tool for stores (NEMS-S) in an urban area of Brazil. J Nutr Educ Behav, 45(6):785-92.
29. Glanz K, Sallis JF, Saelens BE, et al (2007). Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S). Development and Evaluation. Am J Prev Med, 32(4):282-9.
30. Lu W, McKyer ELJ, Dowdy D, et al (2016). Evaluating the Influence of the Revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Food Allocation Package on Healthy Food Availability, Accessibility, and Affordability in Texas. J Acad Nutr Diet, 116(2):292-301.
31. Duran AC, Lock K, Latorre MRDO, Jaime PC (2015). Evaluating the use of in-store measures in retail food stores and restaurants in Brazil. Rev Saude Publica, 49:80.
32. Cheadle A, Psaty B, Wagner E, et al (1990). Evaluating community-based nutrition programs: Assessing the reliability of a survey of grocery store product displays. Am J Public Health, 80(6):709-11.
33. Ghirardelli A, Quinn V, Sugerman S (2011). Reliability of a retail food store survey and development of an accompanying retail scoring system to communicate survey findings and identify vendors for healthful food and marketing initiatives. J Nutr Educ Behav, 43(4 Suppl 2):S104-12.
34. Rimkus L, Powell LM, Zenk SN, et al (2013). Development and reliability testing of a food store observation form. J Nutr Educ Behav, 45(6):540-8.
35. Izumi BT, Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, et al (2012). Inter-rater reliability of the food environment audit for diverse neighborhoods (FEAD-N). J Urban Health, 89(3):486-99.
36. Zenk SN, Grigsby-Toussaint DS, Curry SJ, et al (2010). Short-term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics. J Nutr Educ Behav, 42(1):26-32.
37. Kerr J, Sallis JF, Bromby E, Glanz K (2012). Assessing Reliability and Validity of the GroPromo Audit Tool for Evaluation of Grocery Store Marketing and Promotional Environments. J Nutr Educ Behav, 44(6):597-603.
38. Pomerleau J, Knai C, Foster C, et al (2013). Measuring the food and built environments in urban centres: Reliability and validity of the EURO-PREVOB Community Questionnaire. Public Health, 127(3):259-67.
39. Black C, Ntani G, Inskip H, et al (2014). Measuring the healthfulness of food retail stores: Variations by store type and neighbourhood deprivation. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 11:69.
40. Poulos NS, Pasch KE (2015). The Outdoor MEDIA DOT: The development and inter-rater reliability of a tool designed to measure food and beverage outlets and outdoor advertising. Health Place, 34:135-42.
41. Hosler AS, Dharssi A (2011). Reliability of a survey tool for measuring con-sumer nutrition environment in urban food stores. J Public Health Manag Pract, 17(5):E1-8.
42. Thornton LE, Pearce JR, Kavanagh AM (2011). Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess the role of the built environment in influencing obesity: a glossary. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 8:71.
IssueVol 50 No 3 (2021) QRcode
SectionReview Article(s)
Measurement Food store environment Instrument Development

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
ZERAFATI-SHOAE N, TAGHDISI MH, AZADBAKHT L, SHARIF NIA H, ARYAEIAN N. Defining and Developing Measures of Checklist for Measuring Food Store Environment: A Systematic Review. Iran J Public Health. 50(3):480-491.