Vol 49 No 1 (2020)

Published: 2020-01-08

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 390 | views: 454 | pages: 1-13

    Background: The rise in popularity of waterpipe smoking among younger people cause increase its deleterious effects on health in recent years. The aim of this study was to estimate the pooled prevalence of water-pipe smoking in university students in Iran.

    Methods: We performed the literature search from 1946 to January 21, 2019, in several international and national databases such as Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, Magiran, Iranmedex, and IranPsych. To investigate the between-study heterogeneity we used the chi-squared test and I2 index. We used a random-effects model to estimate the pooled prevalence of water-pipe smoking. The potential source of heterogeneity was assessed by subgroup analysis and meta-regression.

    Results: According to the eligibility criteria, we included 37 relevant studies in our meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of lifetime water-pipe smoking was 25% (95% CI: 22-29) and in male and female subgroups was 37% (95%CI: 30-45), 17% (95%CI: 15-19) respectively. The pooled prevalence of water-pipe smoking in last year was 21% (95%CI: 16-25) and in last month was 8% (95%CI: 5-11). Results of meta-regression analysis showed that there was not any significant association between suspected variables and the prevalence of water-pipe smoking.

    Conclusion: The higher prevalence rate of water pipe smoking among university students indicates the emergency need for planning preventive program.

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 244 | views: 252 | pages: 14-20

    Background: Regular physical activity lowers or prevents the risk of heart disease, diabetes, some cancers, the development of hypertension, and death from these diseases through a reduction in inflammation. Cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are major markers representing the inflammatory process. This study aimed to investigate cytokine mRNA expression levels of IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, and CRP in hepatocytes from breast cancer xenograft mice with or without moderate exercise.

    Methods: Each of the 5 mice at SP Korea Company, Seoul, Korea in 2015 were randomly divided into 3 groups: control (CTL), breast cancer (BC), and breast cancer exercise (BCEX). The inflammatory markers were analyzed in 10-week-old female Balb/C nude mice hepatocytes (n = 15; CTL = 5, BC = 5, BCEX = 5). Moderate intensity physical activity in mice was performed on a treadmill at an intensity of 18 m/min for 12 weeks, at 30 min for 5 days per week.

    Results: IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, and CRP mRNA expression levels of the BCEX group were significantly decreased compared to those of the BC group (P < 0.05), with no difference to the CTL group.

    Conclusion: There might be a reduced inflammatory process via a reduction in TNF-α, IL-6, IL-18, and CRP expression in breast cancer mice that were subjected to moderate intensity exercise.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 141 | views: 153 | pages: 21-29

    Background: We aimed to investigate the expressions of miR-21 and miR-210 in the breast cancer tissue and their correlation with clinicopathological features and prognosis.

    Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 68 patients with breast cancer treated surgically in Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military in 2014-2015. The breast cancer tissue and the adjacent normal tissue were collected from the patients. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression levels of miR-21 and miR-210 in the breast cancer and adjacent normal tissues.

    Results: According to qRT-PCR, the expression levels of miR-210 and miR-21 in the breast cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in the adjacent normal tissue (P<0.05), which were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, clinical staging and differentiation of patients (P<0.05). miR-21 and miR-210 were significantly positive correlated in both breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues (r=0.7014, 0.7502, P<0.001). The survival rate in the miR-210 high expression group was significantly lower than that in the miR-210 low expression group (P<0.05), whereas there was no significant difference between the miR-21 high and low expression groups.

    Conclusion: miR-21 and miR-210 are highly expressed in the breast cancer tissue and significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, clinical staging and differentiation. miR-210, the up-regulated expression of which is related to the poor prognosis of patients with breast cancer, may be a potential prognostic indicator for breast cancer, which can be used to judge the prognosis.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 146 | views: 171 | pages: 30-36

    Background: The correlation between postoperative deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and inflammation in patients with permanent cardiac pacemaker implantation was analyzed.

    Methods: A total of 130 cases undergoing permanent pacemaker implantation in the 305 Hospital of Chinese PLA and Fuwai Hospital from May 2014 to February 2017 were selected. Of the 130 cases, 60 patients complicated with DVT were selected as the observation group, and the remaining 70 cases without complications of DVT were selected as the control group. The relationship and influence of various factors were explored.

    Results: The number of patients smoking and the number of subjects with DVT history in the observation group were higher than those in the control group. In the observation group, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1: Ag, PAI-1: Ac, thrombin-activated fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI): Ag, and TAFI: Ac levels were higher than those in control group (P<0.05). The levels of inflammatory factors of the peripheral blood of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). In the correlation analysis of serum inflammatory factors and coagulation factors, CRP, IL-6, IL-10 were positively correlated with PAI-1: Ag level. Age, BMI, smoking history, number of implanted electrodes, DVT history, duration of immobilization and inflammatory factor levels had independent predictive value on postoperative complicated DVT.

    Conclusion: The serum inflammatory factors are closely associated with postoperative DVT in patients implanted with permanent cardiac pacemaker, and the serum inflammatory factors are a good reference for the evaluation of DVT.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 149 | views: 192 | pages: 37-45

    Background: Continuously deeper reform of public hospitals has put forward the need to innovate the philosophy and system of large medical equipment operation and management, and the phenomenon featuring “more attention to purchasing and less attention to management” need to be turned around.

    Methods: This research took use of information management to set up ID fields (unique number) for target stand-alone equipment; integrated statistics functions of HIS, PACS, LIS, RIS and equipment management system to get the basic operation data; informationized the work flow and reform technology to set up a post evaluation indictor system for the performance of stand-alone equipment; compared the service condition of newly purchased equipment with the feasibility application of relative department from various dimensions; designed objective post-evaluation indicators from various angles to scientifically manage existing medical equipment and support decision-making of new application for purchasing medical equipment.

    Results: Application performance of stand-alone equipment and clinical departments were ranked in a standardized manner. Decision-making mode based on data case of stand-alone equipment was set up. Net present value was evaluated. However, re-purchasing the instrument did not continuously increase the contribution of each instrument. The laboratory can purchase new instruments again, while the imaging department is not recommended to purchase.

    Conclusion: The performance evaluation mechanism based on information construction for large stand-alone medical equipment and its support for decision-making of purchasing is of great significance to improve the service life of equipment, exert the maximum effect and reduce economic waste.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 148 | views: 156 | pages: 46-55

    Background: The quality of out-of-home foods is an increasingly important issue due to increasing popularity of eating out. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship of eating-out frequency with general characteristics, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes among Korean adults.

    Methods: This study collected data from 2010- 2015 KNHANES. The total number of participants was 33,427 Korean adults aged 19 years and older. All statistical analyses were conducted using SAS software version 9.3. 

    Results: Eating-out more frequently was associated with younger, unmarried, employed, urban resident, higher income, higher education, and being male. Regarding dietary behavior, subjects with skipping breakfast and taking snack behavior showed a tendency to eat out more frequently. Meanwhile, energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, and sodium intake were higher in subjects with ≥ 5/week eating-out frequency than those in subjects with < 5/week eating-out frequency.

    Conclusion: This study provides important insights into the effect of targeted public health education and policies.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 119 | views: 140 | pages: 56-67

    Background: Risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is defined by genetic predisposition and environmental factors that often co-occur and interact, resulting in diversiform biological reactions. The present study attempted to investigate transcriptome alteration and adaptation associated with CRC progression.

    Methods: The study consisted of patients who presented at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China with a colonic neoplasm in 1992-2004. Microarray GSE41258 of the study was acquired from Gene Expression Omnibus and 253 included microarrays were categorized by groups of normal colon, early primary tumor, lymph node metastases primary tumor, advanced primary tumor and distant metastases. Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM) was applied to discover tumor grade-dependent gene expression patterns. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were carried out to explore functional enrichment of differential expression genes (DEGs).

    Results: Overall, 2870 significant DEGs were screened out on all groups. Six significant grade-dependent gene expression patterns were statistically significant. DEGs in all significant patterns were mainly assembled in GO terms of metastases and deterioration of tumor, epithelial proteins and cytokines, and protein binding and bridging. DEGs in profile 0 down-regulated with higher tumor grade, prominently enriched in KEGG pathways of metabolism.

    Conclusion: Besides many well-known colorectal cancer-related pathways, DEGs of profiles especially those down-regulated with CRC progression, clustered in various metabolic pathways including starch and sucrose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, as well as xenobiotics biotransformation that link to tumorigenesis, demonstrating the impairment of physiological metabolic pathways in the context of tumor progression. These results gave a high potential for therapeutic strategies.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 177 | views: 252 | pages: 68-76

    Background: As a result of the road traffic accidents 1.25 mln. of working-age people die each year on the roads. Frequency of the RTA is 11 times higher in our country than in Europe, that influence on demographic and economic situation in the republic. Creation of the math modeling and prediction of traffic mortality rate in Kazakhstan will allow to develop measure on its decrease.

    Methods: Short-term dotted prediction of population mortality level of Kazakhstan was used, in particular – methods of regressive analysis. General prognosis throughout the country up to 2021 was made on the basis of data for 1999-2018. The more relevant method for prediction is exponential function taking into account the features of mortality rate level trend.

    Results: Prediction of traffic fatalities without division into the age-related groups for 2019 is 2132±181 case with a probability 2/3. Expected levels for 2020-2027 cases, for 2021-1927 cases.

    Annual mortality decrease rate according to the 0-19 age-related at an average is 6.4% among men and 5.8% among women, according to age group as a whole – by 6.2%; from 20 up to 64 age related group – 5.1 % on all population category; older 65 age –group is by 2.2 %, 3.7 % among men, 2.9% among women as a whole.

    Conclusion: In the foreseeable future the number of traffic deaths in Kazakhstan will tend to decrease at a slower pace. Mortality rates due to road traffic accidents among working-age men will be 3 times higher than women in this age group.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 156 | views: 181 | pages: 77-85

    Background: We aimed to assess the effect of sulforaphane (SFN) on breast cancer cell migration and also its effect on the expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and β-catenin.

    Methods: This study was performed in Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran from 2017- 2018. In this experimental study, MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with different concentrations of SFN (5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 μM) at different time points of 24, 48, and 72 h. The control group was untreated cells. The inhibitory effects of different concentrations of SFN on cell migration at different time points were evaluated using scratch assay. Moreover, apoptosis was assessed by using flow cytometric analysis. The expression of βcatenin and EMT markers of ZEB1, fibronectin, and claudin-1 were determined by real-time PCR. Western blotting analysis of β-catenin was applied to determine its changes after SFN treatment

    Results: SFN markedly inhibited the migration of cells at concentrations of 10, 20, 30, and 40µM after 24, 48, and 72 h. At relatively, high concentrations (30, 40µM), SFN induced apoptosis. Moreover, SFN reduced the gene expression of ZEB1, fibronectin, and claudin-1 after 72 h. The expression of β-catenin revealed a time-dependent decrease at the concentration of 40 µM SFN.

    Conclusion: Downregulation of EMT markers and β-catenin showed accordance with the inhibition of migration. SFN could be a promising drug candidate to reduce metastasis in breast cancer.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 181 | views: 278 | pages: 86-95

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the health status of the Iranians following the sustainable development goals’ (SDGs) introduction and the recent health reform implementation in Iran and to compare with those of the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA) and global average.

    Methods: This comparative study used secondary data to investigate socio-demographic and health status indicators. The sources included census, population-based surveys and death registries. Global and regional health status indicators were obtained from international databases including WHO, the World Bank and the Institute for Health Metric and Evaluation (IHME).

    Results: Life expectancy and human development index improved following the reform implementation. Among causes of death, 74.6% were attributed to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). There was an increasing trend in risk factors for NCDs in Iran, while at the same time neonatal, infant and under-5 mortality rates reduced. Compared to the MENA, Iran has a lower maternal mortality ratio, neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality rates, and a higher life expectancy. NCDs and road traffic injuries accounted for a larger portion of disability-adjusted life years in Iran compared to the MENA and worldwide.

    Conclusion: Actions against communicable diseases and road traffic injuries are required together with continued efforts to address NCDs. Although based on the results, Iran has relatively high rankings, there is a need ‎to develop a roadmap to accelerate achieving global health goals and SDGs targets. 

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 129 | views: 148 | pages: 96-103

    Background: The presence and diversity of Staphylococcus species and their enterotoxin-encoding genes in foodstuffs have not been comprehensively studied in some developing countries. This study aimed to assess the frequency of Staphylococcus spp. and their related virulence factors in foodstuffs in Isfahan, Iran.

    Methods: Overall, 139 foodstuff samples, collected from Isfahan City (center of Iran) from Sep 2015 to Oct 2016, were processed for the presence of Staphylococcus spp. using standard bacteriological procedures and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and prevalence of mecA and toxin-encoded genes (sea, seb, sed, see and tsst1) were tested for all of the Staphylococcal isolates.

    Results: Forty-four Gram-positive cocci were recovered from 139 dairy and meat samples. The most prevalent species were S. vitulinus 25.0% (11/44) and S. aureus 20.5% (9/44); respectively. The most prevalent antimicrobial resistance was noted towards penicillin, cefoxitin and tetracycline. The sec, sea, see and tsst1 genes were found in 19%, 9.5%, 3.5%, and 3.5% of the isolates, respectively.

    Conclusion: Numerous virulence factors were detected in different Staphylococcus spp. isolated from foodstuffs, more attention should be paid to the presence of the bacteria. Proper hygienic and management practices should be considered in order to increase food safety and prevent extra treatment costs.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 145 | views: 201 | pages: 104-113

    Background: Health research networks (HRNs) are critical components of large-scale systems of production and validation of scientific evidence. As evaluation of research systems is a reliable process to measure efficiency and effectiveness of their activities, we aimed to report the processes of development of evaluation indicators’ for Iranian health research networks and the results of conducted assessment.

    Methods: In 2017, for the first time, aim to develop the evaluation framework for national HRNs, following the qualitative approach to assess the quality of research we designed the peer review method as one of the most important tools. This qualitative method was conducted according to experts’ views in specific fields. Key policy makers and stakeholders collaboratively developed a number of criteria for evaluation of research performance of Iranian HRNs. Following the review of conducted studies, benefitting from published guide line, these indicators were defined under 4 main axes of governance and leadership; infrastructures; research products and research impact.

    Results: Based on requirements of developed protocol for evaluation of HRNs in Iran, 18 HRNs completed the processes of evaluation. Results show a progressive need for more attention to precise planning of HRNs for achieving to goals. Another point to consider is the attention to documenting processes. The observational system for researches for detection of latest research priority was the most important issues that need to be more addressed by all of networks.

    Conclusion: Research evaluation of Iranian HRNs more over creating of constructive positive competition provide an overview of the shortcomings and research challenges could be used for better planning and promotion of the health research system.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 172 | views: 212 | pages: 114-124

    Background: Constructions in informal settlements not respected any applying rules, regulations of urban planning, and building codes with high population density, are the municipality challenge. We aimed to identify level of buildings seismic vulnerability and population at risk in Tehran’s Farahzad informal settlement in 2017.

    Methods: In this observational cross-sectional study, residential buildings were assessed for seismic performance of constructions. We screened 160 buildings according to Iranian national guidelines by Rapid Seismic Visual Screening Method as a tool to calculate and determine Level of Retrofitting (LR) scores of buildings. We also interviewed residents of the buildings to collect data regarding socio-demographic data, individual disability status, Disaster Assessment of Readiness and Training (DART) regarding household disaster preparedness, and time occupancy in the buildings.

    Results: Overall, 160 buildings with 209 households and 957 individuals were surveyed. 97.5% of buildings were formed of heavy construction materials. None of them were categorized as engineered buildings and LR of residential buildings ranged from 82.4% to 163.8% with a mean 117.9%. LR scores of more than 100% were capped as 100%. Vulnerable groups of the sample population include under-five years old (8.7%), 60 yr old and above (6.7%), and 9.1% of households had at least one disabled member. 16.7% of households were living in homes with dense area. The DART score for 94.3% of surveyed households was zero.

    Conclusion: Disaster managers in Tehran municipality must design and implement a comprehensive risk reduction plan in poor urban areas as vulnerable regions for earthquake hazard.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 121 | views: 130 | pages: 125-133

    Background: In a new approach, computational methods are used to design and evaluate the vaccine. The aim of the current study was to develop a computational tool to predict epitope candidate vaccines to be tested in experimental models.

    Methods: This study was conducted in the School of Allied Medical Sciences, and Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2018. The random forest which is a classifier method was used to design computer-based tool to predict immunogenic peptides. Data was used to check the collected information from the IEDB, UniProt, and AAindex database. Overall, 1,264 collected data were used and divided into three parts; 70% of the data was used to train, 15% to validate and 15% to test the model. Five-fold cross-validation was used to find optimal hyper parameters of the model. Common performance metrics were used to evaluate the developed model.

    Results: Twenty seven features were identified as more important using RF predictor model and were used to predict the class of peptides. The RF model improves the performance of predictor model in comparison with the other predictor models (AUC±SE: 0.925±0.029). Using the developed RF model helps to identify the most likely epitopes for further experimental studies.

    Conclusion: The current developed random forest model is able to more accurately predict the immunogenic peptides of intracellular parasites.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 119 | views: 135 | pages: 134-144

    Background: The AcrB efflux pump in Salmonella species plays a significant role in the development of antibiotic resistance in ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enteritidis. This study aimed to investigate the anti-efflux pump activity of Artemisia tournefortiana extracts among S. Enteritidis strains.

    Methods: The hydroalcoholic, aqueous, and hexanolic extracts of A. tournefortiana were prepared and phytochemical composition of extract was determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. After antibiogram, the AcrB efflux pump was detected in ciprofloxacin intermediate and resistant S. enteritidis strains using cartwheel and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Finally, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of extracts against S. enteritidis strains were evaluated. After treatment of S. enteritidis strains with sub-MIC concentrations of extracts, the expression level of AcrB efflux pump gene was evaluated using Real-Time PCR.

    Results: Phytochemical analysis of extracts using GC/MS method showed that hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester (30.7%), and cyclopropane,1-(1-hydroxy-1-heptyl)-2-methylene-3-pentyl (17.8%) were the most dominant volatile components volatile compounds in the extract. The results of antibiogram, cartwheel and PCR methods showed that among 20 strains of S. enteritidis that were resistant and intermediate to ciprofloxacin, 16 strains had AcrB efflux pumps. Finally, Real-Time PCR results showed a significant down-regulation of acrB gene in S. enteritidis strains.

    Conclusion: A. tournefortiana had anti-efflux activity and this plant can potentially be used as a natural efflux inhibitor for S. enteritidis strains.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 162 | views: 327 | pages: 145-156

    Background: Immunotherapy is a recently developed method of cancer therapy, aiming to strengthen a patient’s immune system in different ways to fight cancer. One of these ways is to add stem cells into the patient’s body.

    Methods: The study was conducted in Kermanshah, western Iran, 2016-2017. We first modeled the interaction between cancerous and healthy cells using the concept of evolutionary game theory. System dynamics were analyzed employing replicator equations and control theory notions. We categorized the system into separate cases based on the value of the parameters. For cases in which the system converged to undesired equilibrium points, “stem-cell injection” was employed as a therapeutic suggestion. The effect of stem cells on the model was considered by reforming the replicator equations as well as adding some new parameters to the system.

    Results: By adjusting stem cell-related parameters, the system converged to desired equilibrium points, i.e., points with no or a scanty level of cancerous cells. In addition to the theoretical analysis, our simulation results suggested solutions were effective in eliminating cancerous cells.

    Conclusion: This model could be applicable to different types of cancer, so we did not restrict it to a specific type of cancer. In fact, we were seeking a flexible mathematical framework that could cover different types of cancer by adjusting the system parameters.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 204 | views: 259 | pages: 157-166

    Background: Identification of liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica, and Fasciola gigantica by morphometric parameters is not always reliable due to the overlapping measurements. This study aimed to characterize the liver flukes of animals from different parts of Iran by the genetic markers, ITS1, and COXI.

    Methods: We collected flukes from infected livestock in six provinces of Iran from Sep to Nov 2016. The flukes were identified by amplification of a 680 bp sequence of ITS1 locus followed by a restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP) assay. The genetic diversity among isolates was evaluated by amplification and sequencing of a 493 bp fragment of the COXI gene.

    Results: We obtained 38 specimens from Khuzestan, 22 from Tehran, 10 from Isfahan, 10 from Mazandaran, 4 from Kurdistan, and 3 from Ardabil provinces. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed two patterns, representing F. hepatica, and F. gigantica. Fifty specimens from cattle and sheep exhibited F. hepatica pattern and 37 from the cattle, sheep, buffalo, and goat that of F. gigantica. The phylogeny based on COXI revealed two distinct clades separating F. hepatica from F. gigantica. In our phylogeny, the Iranian F. gigantica isolates showed a distinct separation from the African flukes, while grouped with the East Asia specimens demonstrating a common ancestor. The F. hepatica isolates clustered with the flukes from different parts of the world, including East Asia, Europe, and South America.

    Conclusion: The present study revealed a substantial genetic difference between F. gigantica populations of Asia and Africa, while F. hepatica isolates from different parts of the world shared high similarities.

Short Communication(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 153 | views: 153 | pages: 167-172

    Background: Old world cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is known as a self-healing cutaneous parasitic infection. Host immunity has a fundamental role in the course of this infection. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between nutritional status and vitamin A intake with the clinical course of CL.

    Methods: Overall, 250 patients with CL attending a dermatology clinic in Imam Reza Hospital Mashhad, Iran, were enrolled from Apr 2011 to Aug 2012. For data gathering, a semi-quantitative 302-item food frequency questionnaire was utilized. They received routine treatment protocols for leishmaniasis and 1 year of follow-up

    Results: As for the 149 patients who completed the study, a deficiency of macro and micronutrients, particularly vitamin A, was significantly related to a chronic clinical disease course.

    Conclusion: Imbalanced or insufficient nutritional intake including vitamin A deficiency, may influence the clinical course of CL.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 117 | views: 149 | pages: 173-180

    Background: In 2013, WHO estimated the annual diarrheal mortality rate among children less than five years in Egypt was 24 deaths per 100.000, 2% was due to rotavirus infection.

    Methods: Eight water samples were collected monthly from the Nile water stream passing through Giza over 12 months during June 2016 to May 2017. Totally, ninety-six water samples were collected and concentrated for the detection of rotavirus group A (RV-A) using RT-PCR. Multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR was performed to identify the genotypes P and G of RV-A.

    Results: The detection rate of RV-A was 18.75% (18/96), whereas the rate of rotavirus genotypes G and P were 61% (11/18) and 50% (9/18), respectively. Rotaviruses G1P[8] and G1P[4] were the most common genotypes identified in our survey. In addition, the seasonal distribution findings demonstrated that the highest detection rate was 37.5% in the winter season, followed by 20.8%, 12.5% and 4% in spring, autumn and summer, respectively.

    Conclusion: Multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR is a useful method for rapid detection and genotyping of RV-A in surface water samples.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 137 | views: 131 | pages: 181-185

    Background: The main objective of the current study was to investigate on the cryopreservation of protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus, a causative agent of cystic hydatidosis in man.

    Methods:  This study was conducted on isolated protoscoleces from hydatid cysts infected livers collected from slaughterhouse of Tehran, Iran in 2016. Viability of protoscoleces was evaluated by dye test. Cryopreservation of isolated protoscoleces in the presence of Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol using a three-step cooling protocol involving an initial period at -20 °C, -80 °C and liquid nitrogen was performed.

    Results: The mean viability rate of 10% DMSO and 15% glycerol were 9% and 8% respectively. The protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus have been successfully thawed and recovered after 6 months storage in liquid nitrogen.

    Conclusion: Cryopreservation method needs to be improved for each species of helminthes and can be useful for other immunological and laboratorial studies.

Letter to the Editor