Vol 50 No 5 (2021)

Published: 2021-04-30

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 341 | views: 287 | pages: 852-865

    Background: In this study, the basic criteria, models, and indicators of intersectoral collaboration in health promotion were investigated to facilitate the implementation of collaboration.

    Methods: This scoping review was conducted using datasets of Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed, and search engines of Google, Google Scholar, and ProQuest.

    Results: 52 studies were included, and 32 codes in Micro, Meso, and Macro level, were obtained. Micro-level criteria had the highest frequency. Among the models used in the reviewed studies, social network analysis, Diagnosis of Sustainable Collaboration, Bergen, and logic models had the highest frequency. Among the indicators studied, the number of participants and the level of collaboration as well as its sustainability were the most frequent indicators.

    Conclusion: The findings identified the most important and widely used criteria, models, and indicators of intersectoral collaboration in health promotion which can be useful for decision-makers and planners in the domain of health promotion, in designing, implementing, and evaluating collaborative programs.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 142 | views: 206 | pages: 866-878

    Background: Burn injuries are very common and fire-related burns account for over 300,000 deaths per year globally. The costs of the treatment of these patients change around the world. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic literature review to identify the costs related to hospital stays of burn victims in countries with different Human Development Index (HDIs).

    Methods: PubMed, CINAHL and BVIS databases were searched using the following terms: “burn,” treatment” and “costs”. The review included articles that presented cost studies or economic assessments of burn victims in which the costs were reported, and published between 2012 and 2019. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria. This review presents register in Prospero (CRD42019137580).

    Results: The review included 19 economic studies conducted in 13 countries, most with a very high HDIs. Most studies estimated direct acute burn care costs through bottom-up costing and institutional data. Total hospital care costs ranged from US$ 10.58 to US$ 125,597.86 per patient, the cost of 1% of total body surface area burned ranged from US$ 2.65 to US$ 11,245.04, and the cost of hospital care per day, from US$ 24.23 to US$ 4,125.50.

    Conclusion: The costs are high and show wide discrepancies among countries. Medical costs and other losses caused by fatal and non-fatal burn injuries differ considerably among demographic groups, care protocols, and country HDIs.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 182 | views: 227 | pages: 879-887

    Background: Nurses have a continuous presence and crucial role in response to disasters. During disasters, nurses apply specific knowledge and skills to minimize victims’ health and life-threatening risks. Nurses’ roles in crisis are not clearly stated in resources. Thus, this study aimed to explore nurses’ role in the nursing disaster model.

    Methods: A scoping review was conducted using Joanna Briggs Institute framework. The review considered primary research and reviewed literature from following databases, including Web of Science, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar, as well as the reference lists of articles identified for full-text review. Eligibility criteria were outlined as a priori to guide the literature selection.

    Results: Eight of 60 eligible articles met the inclusion criteria. The studies were conducted in different countries with no limit of time of published articles. The publications’ design were three systematic reviews, one meta-synthesis, two qualitative types of research, one quasi-experimental, and one case study. The results showed nurses’ roles in the three stages before, during, and after the crisis.

    Conclusion: This review provided a comprehensive understanding of the concept of the nursing role in the crisis, and nurses could be useful to save victims through preparing and implementing effective care at different stages of a crisis.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 112 | views: 141 | pages: 888-899

    Background: Group B streptococcus or streptococcus Agalactia is a gram positive beta hemolytic bacteria which is the main factor in neonatal infections. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of GBS in world and clarifying the rate of this infection in Islamic and non-Islamic countries.

    Methods: We performed a systematic search by using different databases including Medline, Scopus, Science Direct, Psycho-Info ProQuest and Web of Science published up to Feb 2019. We undertook meta-analysis to obtain the pooled estimate of prevalence of GBS colonization in Islamic and non-Islamic countries.

    Results: Among 3324 papers searched, we identified 245 full texts of prevalence of GBS in pregnancy; 131 were included in final analysis. The estimated mean prevalence of maternal GBS colonization was 15.5% (CI:95% (14.2-17)) worldwide; which was 14% (CI:95% (11-16.8)) in Islamic and 16.3% (CI:95% (14.6-18.1)) in non-Islamic countries and was statistically significant. Moreover, with regards to sampling area, prevalence of GBS colonization was 11.1 in vagina and 18.1 in vagina-rectum.

    Conclusion: Frequent washing of perineum based on religious instructions in Islamic countries can diminish the rate of GBS colonization in pregnant women.

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 188 | views: 264 | pages: 900-907

    Background: The fast-growing trend of urbanizations and the dwellers' stressful lifestyle in megacities has led to several drawbacks from the mental health perspective. Provided that there is a significant association between the green environment and mental health, we investigated different functions of a green roof from two perspectives of well-being and environment.

    Methods: After investigating on different functions of the green roof and classifying them into two sections, a self questionnaire survey was conducted in May 2020 on 100 citizens of the Seoul metropolitan area after, South Korea visiting the green roof. They were asked to clarify their perception of the different functions of green roof gardens. The statistical analysis was performed to show the differences in perception and how each variable can contribute to such differences. 

    Results: The results illustrated a high satisfaction rate among the visitors of green roofs. The perception of the well-being functions was higher than those of environmental functions. However, age group can alter the perception significantly, as the senior citizens significantly perceived the well-being functions. In contrast, the awareness of the environmental functions was higher among the younger participants. 

    Conclusion: Providing practical information about the ideal functions of green roofs, this study offered helpful insight for the planners who focus on society’s general health and work in two different sections: developing the city landscape and mental health improvement.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 105 | views: 127 | pages: 908-918

    Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently shown promise for the treatment of various types of chronic kidney disease models. However, the mechanism of this effect is still not well understood. Our study is aimed to investigate the effect of MSCs on transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells) and the underlying mechanism related to the reciprocal balance between hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and TGF-β1.

    Methods: Our study was performed at Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China between Mar 2017 and Jun 2018. HK-2 cells were initially treated with TGF-β1,then co-cultured with MSCs. The induced EMT was assessed by cellular morphology and the expressions of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and EMT-related proteins. MTS assay and flow cytometry were employed to detect the effect of TGF-β1 and MSCs on HK-2 cell proliferation and apoptosis. SiRNA against hepatocyte growth factor (siHGF) was transfected to decrease the expression of HGF to identify the role of HGF in MSCs inhibiting HK-2 cells EMT.

    Results: Overexpressing TGF-β1 decreased HGF expression, induced EMT, suppressed proliferation and promoted apoptosis in HK-2 cells; but when co-cultured with MSCs all the outcomes were reversed. However, after treated with siHGF, all the benefits taken from MSCs vanished.

    Conclusion: TGF-β1 was a motivating factor of kidney cell EMT and it suppressed the HGF expression. However, MSCs provided protection against EMT by increasing HGF level and decreasing TGF-β1 level. Our results also demonstrated HGF is one of the critical factor in MSCs anti- fibrosis.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 148 | views: 138 | pages: 919-926

    Background: We aimed to compare the physical activity, kinesiophobia, and fatigue levels of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients and healthy individuals in terms their somatotypes.

    Methods: A total of 165 individuals were enrolled referred to the Department of Chest Diseases Sleep Disorders Center Outpatient Clinic of Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey in 2018. The somatotype analysis was conducted using the Heath-Carter method, the fatigue level was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) fatigue scale, the kinesiophobia level was assessed using the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK), and the physical activity level was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).

    Results: The results of the somatotype analysis revealed 3 different somatotypes in the healthy individuals and the OSAS patients’ mesomorph endomorph, endomorphic mesomorph, and mesomorphic endomorph. When comparing the somatotypes of the healthy individuals and the OSAS patients, statistically significant differences were found in the FACIT scores of the mesomorph endomorphs, the IPAQ and FACIT scores of the endomorphic mesomorphs, and the TSK and FACIT scores of the mesomorphic endomorphs (P<0.05).

    Conclusion: In all three somatotypes of the OSAS patients, the fatigue index scores were higher when compared to those of the healthy individuals. Moreover, when compared with the healthy individuals, the physical activity levels of the endomorphic mesomorphs with OSAS were low, while the kinesiophobia scores of the mesomorphic endomorphs with OSAS were high. Based on the results of this study, in OSAS patients, the endomorphic mesomorph somatotype could be a risk factor for reduced physical activity, while the mesomorphic endomorph somatotype could be a risk factor for increased kinesiophobia.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 82 | views: 116 | pages: 927-937

    Background: Serum miR-497 can be used as a predictive index of the early diagnosis and poor prognosis of atherosclerosis cerebral infarction (ATCI).

    Methods: Overall, 135 ATCI patients, treated in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong 226001, P.R.China from Apr 2012 to Jan 2015, were included in ATCI group. Whereas, 77 patients with non-atherosclerosis cerebral infarction were put in the control group. RT-qPCR was performed for detecting serum miR-497 expression, whose relationship with the patients’ clinicopathological parameters was analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to evaluate values of serum miR-497 for diagnosing ATCI patients and their 3-year and 5-year overall survival rates (OSRs). Cox regression analysis was conducted on prognostic factors of ATCI patients.

    Results: miR-497 remarkably rose in the serum of ATCI patients, and was correlated with histories of hypertension, smoking and diabetes mellitus (DM). Its areas under curves (AUCs) for diagnosing these pathological parameters were 0.803, 0.817 and 0.819, respectively. Its expression was higher in the serum of the patients with recurrence and poor prognoses. Its AUCs for predicting the two conditions were 0.924 and 0.937, respectively. The 3- and 5-year OSRs of patients with low expression were remarkably higher than those of patients with high expression.

    Conclusion: miR-497 and histories of hypertension, smoking and DM were independent prognostic factors affecting the 3-year OSR of ATCI patients. miR-497 expression rises in ATCI patients, so this miR is expected to become a serum diagnostic marker for ATCI.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 120 | views: 176 | pages: 938-948

    Background: Efforts have often been made to improve physical education (PE) classes in response to rapidly changing societies. We applied science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) education to PE classes. The purpose was to examine the effect of STEAM-based PE lessons on self-directed learning abilities, a core competency of the 21st century, and on attitudes toward PE classes related to PE alienation and avoidance.

    Methods: To achieve this purpose, six out of eight classes at a middle school in Jeollabuk-do province, Republic of Korea were selected in 2019. The experimental and control groups, consisting of 87 and 88 students, respectively, were chosen from among 238 first-grade students by utilizing convenience sampling. The experimental group attended PE classes based on STEAM for 14 weeks, whereas the control group attended traditionally teacher-centered PE classes. We used a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.

    Results: The experimental group displayed significant differences in all the sub-factors of attitudes toward PE classes and all the sub-factors of self-directed learning abilities, compared to the control group (P<0.05). PE classes based on STEAM appear to have a positive effect on students' attitudes toward PE classes and their self-directed learning abilities.

    Conclusion: PE is struggling to solve students' alienation and avoidance problems, despite numerous efforts. Thus, discussions have been conducted on how the STEAM philosophy can be implemented in the field of PE. Results suggest that efforts to combine STEAM education and PE are needed.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 113 | views: 161 | pages: 949-958

    Background: Mass communication is one of the most important ways in health communication. The emergence of new media has changed the way people acquire health information and then their health behaviors. However, few studies have been conducted about complicated relations between media use and health behaviors under new media conditions and further systematic explanation is needed.

    Methods: A hypothesis model for the influence of WeChat use on health behaviors was constructed to explore the internal influencing mechanism of new media use on health behaviors. An empirical analysis on the internal influencing mechanism of WeChat use on health behaviors was carried out with a survey data consist of 463 young active users on famous online social network sites in China from March to June 2019.

    Results: New media use represented by WeChat has significant positive influence on health behaviors. Individuals who frequently use new media related to health have better health conditions than those who rarely use them. The improvement of health behaviors is mainly attributed to acquisition of health knowledge. Such effect is also mediated by the degree of individuals’ trust in health knowledge.

    Conclusion: This study not only discloses the influencing mechanism of new media use and health knowledge on health behaviors, but also confirms the value of new media in promoting public health communication and public health behaviors. Conclusions provide significant references in decision-making to develop effective guidance of public health.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 66 | views: 115 | pages: 959-969

    Background: Laryngocarcinoma is the most frequent head and neck malignant tumor. MALAT1 have a role in promoting cell proliferation and metastasis in several tumors. This research aimed to investigate the great roles of MALAT1in laryngocarcinoma.

    Methods: Overall, 54 cases of laryngocarcinoma tissues pathological specimens and paracancerous tissues were collected by surgical resection from the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at the Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, China from Jan 2012 to Oct 2015. The microRNA and protein levels of genes were evaluated by RT-qPCR and western blot. The proliferative and invasive ability were calculated usingCCK8 and transwell assays. Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the survival of laryngocarcinoma patients.

    Results: In laryngocarcinoma tissues and cells, lncRNA MALAT1 expression was significantly increased compared to normal tissues and cells. LncRNA MALAT1 promotes proliferation and migration of laryngocarcinoma cells. LncRNA MALAT1 upregulates HMGA1 expression by acting as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for miR-125b. Rescue experiments showed that microRNA-125b inhibitor reversed the change in cell viability and invasion induced by sh-MALAT1. Down regulation of lncRNA MALAT1 inhibits laryngocarcinoma proliferation and invasion by modulating miR-125b /HMGA1.

    Conclusion: LncRNA MALAT1 promotes the development of laryngocarcinoma by regulating the expression level of HMGA1 by acting as a miR-125b ceRNA and may be considered as a new strategy for the development of laryngocarcinoma.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 83 | views: 136 | pages: 970-977

    Background: Comorbidities are major predictors of in-hospital mortality in stroke patients. The Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and the Elikhauser comorbidity index (ECI) are scoring systems for classifying comorbidities. We aimed to compare the performance of the CCI and ECI to predict in-hospital mortality in stroke patients.

    Methods: We included patients hospitalized for stroke in the Clinical Center of Kragujevac, Serbia for the last 7 years. Hospitalizations caused by stroke, were identified by the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) codes I60.0 - I69.9. All patients were divided into two cohorts: Alive cohort (n=3297) and Mortality cohort (n=978).

    Results: There were significant associations between higher CCIS and increased risk of in-hospital mortality (HR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01–1.12) and between higher ECIS and increased risk of in-hospital mortality (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99–1.09). Almost 2/3 patients (66.9%) had comorbidities included in the CCI score and 1/3 patients (30.2%) had comorbidities included in the ECI score. The statistically significant higher CCI score (t = -3.88, df = 1017.96, P <0.01) and ECI score (t = -6.7, df = 1447.32, P <0.01) was in the mortality cohort.

    Area Under the Curve for ECI score was 0.606 and for CCI score was 0.549.

    Conclusion: Both, the CCI and the ECI can be used as scoring systems for classifying comorbidities in the administrative databases, but the model’s ECI Score had a better discriminative performance of in-hospital mortality in the stroke patients than the CCI Score model.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 90 | views: 125 | pages: 978-989

    Background: Schizophrenia (SZN) is a heterogeneous disorder. Recently, the role of purinergic receptor’s signaling in mental disorders has implicated. There is no evidence regarding the association of P2XR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the risk of behavioral disorders. Therefore, this preliminary study, we determined the association of rs1169727A/G and rs25644A/G variants located in P2XR4 gene with the risk of SZN.

    Methods: This case-control study was performed on 150 SZN patient referring to Baharan Hospital, Zahedan (Eastern of Iran) in 2018. Genotyping was done by tetra-amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (Tetra ARMS-PCR). Different databases were used to determine the effects of the SNPs on the secondary structure of P2XR4 pre-mRNA and protein as well as binding of transcriptional regulators.

    Results: The G allele of rs1169727 significantly increased the risk of SZN (OR=1.41, 95%CI=1.02-1.93, P=0.039), but there was no significant association was found between the other SNP and SZN. Moreover, GG model of rs1169727 (OR=2.46, 95%CI= 1.32-4.62, P=0.004) and rs25644 (OR=3.45, 95%CI= 1.12-5.10, P=0.013) increased the risk of SZN. The substitution of A and G alleles of rs1169727 significantly altered the secondary structure of pre-mRNA (P=0.1). In silico analysis revealed that rs25644A/G could act as an intronic cryptic donor site. Screening for flanking sequence of rs1169727A/G and rs25644A/G predicted a novel enhancer and silencer for both SNPs.

    Conclusion: rs1169727A/G and rs25644A/G are linked to SZN susceptibility in a sample of the Iranian population. In-silico analysis indicated that rs25644 have substantial roles in determining the pre-mRNA and protein structure of P2XR4 gene.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 115 | views: 152 | pages: 990-998

    Background: Anemia during infancy causes irreversible physical, cognitive, motor, and behavioral development disorders. This study aimed to determine the effect of delaying umbilical cord clamping time on certain parameters regarding anemia during the infancy.

    Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted at a university hospital in west of Turkey (Dec 2017-Dec 2018). Overall, 110 participants were evaluated for the research, 65 participants were randomized after excluding those who did not meet the inclusion criteria (intervention=32, control=33). Randomly assigned to delayed clamping (1 min after delivery) or early clamping (in 15 sec after delivery), and followed up until 4 months postpartum. 48th-hour hematocrit, bilirubin values, need for phototherapy and hematocrit, hemoglobin values, diagnosis of anemia at the postnatal fourth month were compared between two groups. The data showing normal distribution were assessed using the parametric tests. The level of statistical significance was determined as P<0.05.

    Results: The 48th-hour hematocrit and bilirubin levels of the intervention group were significantly higher than the control (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). No significant difference regarding the need for phototherapy due to postnatal hyperbilirubinemia was observed between the two groups (P>0.05). Means of the intervention group hematocrit and hemoglobin levels measured during anemia screening performed at the fourth month were found to be higher than those of the infants in the control group (P<0.05 and P<0.05, respectively).

    Conclusion: Delaying umbilical cord clamping had a positive impact on the haematological parameters of infants. Clamping the cord at least one minute in birth can be performed to prevent the iron deficit anemia that could be seen during the first years of infants’ lives.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 85 | views: 122 | pages: 999-1008

    Background: In China, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks have become an important issue recent years. We analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of HFMD outbreaks in Qingdao during 2009-2018, and provided evidences for prevention and control of the disease.

    Methods: Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and correlation analysis, and throat swabs were detected for enterovirus RNA using RT-PCR.

    Results: Overall, 116 HFMD outbreaks were reported in Qingdao during 2009-2018, with the epidemic of the outbreaks exhibiting a decreasing tendency. The characteristics of outbreaks presented two patterns, including two-peak pattern and rural area to urban-rural fringe area to urban areas pattern. Male patients were predominant in these outbreaks. The location of the outbreaks changed from nursery to community. Non-EV71/CA16 enteroviruses were gradually becoming predominant enteroviruses serotypes. The durations of outbreaks were positively correlated with response times and the number of cases.

    Conclusion: The epidemiological characteristics analysis of HFMD outbreaks could provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control the disease. Reporting and handling promptly are the keys to control epidemic outbreaks of HFMD.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 93 | views: 134 | pages: 1009-1016

    Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen causing nosocomial infection in human. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the presence of genes involved in biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae isolated from patients and the presence of antibiotic resistance genes.

    Methods: Biochemical tests were used for the identification of K. pneumonia isolated from urine samples referred to hospitals in Tehran, Iran, from Sep 2018 to Jan 2020. The antibiotic resistance pattern was performed and biofilm formation was assessed phenotypically. Finally, β-lactamase genes and adhesion genes were detected by the PCR method.

    Results: We collected 457 K. pneumoniae isolates from hospitals in Tehran, Iran. 110 isolates were resistant to ‎imipenem. Fifty isolates were positive for metallo-β-lactamases that thirty-nine isolates (35.45%) has blaKPC gene, 18 isolates (16.36%) had blaVIM-‎‎1 gene and 9 isolates (8.18%) had blaIMP-1 gene‎ detected by PCR. Sixty isolates (54.54%) had strong biofilm, 35 isolates (31.81%) had moderate ‎biofilm and 15 isolates (13.63%) had weak biofilm. ‎ The presence of adhesion genes in K. pneumoniae isolates significantly ‎correlated with resistance genes (P<0.001).

    Conclusion: It is clear antibacterial resistance has been significant association with biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae isolates. Therefore, understanding resistance pattern and mechanisms leading to biofilm formation can facilitate efficient treatment of infections caused by K. pneumoniae.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 89 | views: 158 | pages: 1017-1027

    Background: Mental disorders and problems put a heavy burden on communities. Since resources allocated to the mental health systems are finite, it seems necessary to assess the efficiency of mental health systems. In this study, we assess the efficiency of mental health care systems across 12 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries in 2014.

    Methods: We used data envelopment analysis (DEA). The number of psychiatrists and nurses working in the mental health sector, the number of beds in mental hospitals, and the healthcare expenditures were included as inputs. The disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of mental and substance use disorders was considered as the output. This approach is an input-oriented and a variable returns to scale.

    Results: Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, and Qatar with the efficiency scores of 1.00 are entirely efficient. However, Bahrain and Iran with the efficiency scores of 0.50 and 0.58 are the most inefficient countries, respectively. After measuring the efficiency model, the radial super-efficiency showed that Egypt and Lebanon with the efficiency scores of 4.73 and 4.09 were ranked as the first and second by far. Qatar and Iraq compared with the previous analysis, and with the efficiency scores of 1.72 and 1.58, were ranked as the third and fourth. Bahrain and Iran were as inefficient as the previous model.

    Conclusion: This study depicted a general portrait of the performance of mental health systems across MENA countries. Countries performed efficiently, have taken advantage of comprehensive programs in mental health sector. Countries are strongly recommended to complement their datasets of mental health to make future studies able to evaluate mental health systems more accurately and perfectly.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 103 | views: 143 | pages: 1028-1036

    Background: The COVID-19 is a pandemic viral infection with a high morbidity rate, leading to many worldwide deaths since the end of 2019. The RBD (Receptor Binding Domain) of SARS-CoV-2 through its spike utilizes several host molecules to enter host cells. One of the most important ones is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), an enzyme normally engaged in renin angiotensin pathway and is responsible for hypertension regulation. As different articles have analyzed separate compounds which can bind ACE2 as the potential virus entry blockers, and each one with a different molecular docking algorithm, in this study we compared all candidate compounds individually as well as their combinations using a unique validated software to introduce most promising ones.

    Methods: We collected and prepared a list of all available compounds which potentially can inhibit RBD binding site of the ACE2 from different studies and then reanalyzed and compared them using the Patchdock (ver. 1.3) as a suitable molecular docking algorithm for analysis of separate compounds or their combinations.

    Results: Saikosaponin A (e.g. in Bupleurum chinense), Baicalin (e.g. in several species in the genus Scutellaria), Glycyrrhizin (Glycyrrhiza glabra), MLN-4760 and Umifenovir better occupied ACE2 to inhibit viral RBD binding and are suggested as the top five inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 binding site of ACE2. Their combinatory effects were also inspiring concurrent ACE2 blockade.

    Conclusion: The results propose greatest compounds and their combinatory anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects in order to decrease the time and expenses required for further experimental designs.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 117 | views: 215 | pages: 1037-1047

    Background: Piperine is a natural compound obtained from the Piper nigrum that exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-cancer activity in cancer cell lines. We analyzed the cytotoxic effect of piperine combined with cisplatin compound in the human MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and the underlying mechanism.

    Methods: The present in vitro study was performed on MCF-7 cell line in Jahrom University of Medical Sciences between, Jahrom, Iran from 2016 to 2017. Cultured MCF-7 cells were seeded into four groups: a control group (untreated group), a group treated with cisplatin, a group treated with piperine and a group treated with cisplatin and piperine. Cell viability was analyzed using the MTT assay method. Flow c-ytometric analysis was investigated for apoptosis. The mRNA and protein expression of the apoptotic regulators p53, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3 and caspase 9 were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting analysis.

    Results: Piperine (20 and 30 µM) in combination with cisplatin (5, 10 and 15 µM) for 24 h synergistically inhibited cell viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells more than piperine and cisplatin used alone. Synergistic anti-breast cancer activities cisplatin (5 µM) and piperine (20 µM) were via inducing apoptosis. Piperine (20 µM) and cisplatin (5 µM) for 24 h induce apoptosis strongly through reduction of Bcl-2 and increase of caspase 3, p53, caspase 9, and Bax.

    Conclusion: Piperine in combination with cisplatin could trigger p53-mediated apoptosis more effective than cisplatin alone in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, reducing the toxic dose of cisplatin used in cancer chemotherapy.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 71 | views: 116 | pages: 1048-1055

    Background: According to the importance of infectious diseases, especially HIV, the purpose of this study was to estimate lifetime and age-conditional risks of HIV diagnosis in Iran.

    Methods: We used vital statistics, HIV surveillance and census data for 2011-2015 to calculate Age-specific HIV diagnosis and non-HIV death rates. These rates then converted to the probability of an HIV diagnosis considering the competing risk. Finally, the probabilities were applied to a hypothetical cohort of 10 million live births. The lifetime and age-conditional risk of HIV diagnosis in the total and general population of Iran were calculated by Dev Can software (version 6.7.4).

    Results: Lifetime risk was 0.084% (95% CI: 0.081-0.088) or one in 1183 for females and 0.21% (95% CI: 0.201- 0.211) or one in 483 for males in the total population. In the general population lifetime risk for men was 0.069% (95% CI: 0.066-0.072) or 1 in 1454 men and 0.066% (95%CI: 0.063-0.069) or one in 1523 for women. In the total and general population, the 10-yr age-conditional risk of HIV diagnosis showed that the highest risk of an HIV diagnosis is related to 30-yr -olds.

    Conclusion: The estimated risks differed based on gender, age, and type of population. Paying close attention to these differences is critical for infection control planning and policies.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 62 | views: 112 | pages: 1056-1064

    Background: To observe the relationship between Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression and neurological function score in epileptic children.

    Methods: Fifty-four epileptic children diagnosed and treated in Xuzhou Children's Hospital, China from Feb 2017 to Mar 2018 were collected and included in a research group (RG), while 30 healthy children who underwent physical examination at the same time were included in the control group (CG). ELISA was used to detect the expression of TNF-α and NPY in the serum of children in the two groups, and those before treatment were compared. The National Institute of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) and Hamilton Anxiety (HAMA) scores before and after treatment were observed, and Pearson correlation was used to analyze the relationship between the expression levels of TNF-α and NPY in the serum as well as NIHSS and HAMA scores.

    Results: The expression levels of TNF-α and NPY in the serum of children in the RG were significantly higher than those in the CG (P<0.001). The expression level of TNF-α was positively correlated with the NIHSS and HAMA scores (r=0.748, P<0.001) (r=0.772, P<0.001). The expression level of NPY was positively correlated with the NIHSS and HAMA scores (r=0.768, P<0.001) (r=0.643, P<0.001).

    Conclusion: TNF-α and NPY are highly expressed in epileptic children and are positively correlated with neurological function score.

Letter to the Editor