2020 Impact Factor: 1.429
2020 CiteScore: 2.1
Chairman & Editor-in-Chief:
Dariush D. Farhud, MD, Ph.D., MG.
Vol 50 No 1 (2021)
Background: One of the health challenges in Sub-Saharan countries is child malnutrition. Body Mass Index (BMI) can be defined as a measure of nutritional status. Examining the determinants of under-five children’s BMI is a significant subject that needs to be studied. For this study, quantile regression was used to identify the determinants of under-five children's BMI in Sudan.
Methods: We used the 2014 Sudan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted by the Central Bureau of Statistics. Quantile regression was used.
Results: Place of residence, state, mother’s educational level, gender, age of the child, and wealth index were an important effect significantly affecting under-five children’s BMI at different quantile levels.
Conclusion: Taking measures on the nutritional status of mothers will accordingly resolve the nutritional status of their children. Therefore, the focus of policymakers should be on the influential significant factors which were found across all quantile levels to plan and develop strategies to enhance the normal or healthy weight status of under-five children in Sudan.
Background: Vascular dementia (VD), as the second-largest type of dementia, is a serious stage of vascular cognitive impairment. It is significant to conduct retrospective epidemiological studies to characterize further the disease for public health. This study estimated the prevalence of VD among the population aged 18 yr and older in China.
Methods: Epidemiological investigations on VD published in journals and covering the period from 1999 to 2019 were identified manually and online by using Chinese databases (such as Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Chinese science-technology databases, and the Chinese Wanfang and Chongqing VIP database) and English databases (such as PubMed, Elsevier Science Bibliographic Databases and Cochrane library). Studies were included if the diagnostic criteria for VD are clear and the quality of the included literature was evaluated using the quality evaluation criteria of epidemiological research methods. A random-effects model was employed according to the statistical test of homogeneity.
Results: Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria, including 100,923 subjects and 977 VD patients. The pooled prevalence of VD was 0.96% (95% [confidence interval, CI] 0.63%~2.1%). The prevalence of VD increased with increasing age. There was a higher prevalence of VD in the northeast China population, in urban areas and males.
Conclusion: We stratified the included studies based on age, location, gender, and geographical distribution for prevalence. The prevalence of VD has slowly risen since 1999. It is obviously different between the North & South and urban &rural districts. While there are many benefits of systematic reviews, the methods presented have inherent limitations.
Background: Conspicuity has been one of the key factors in motorcycle road crashes around the world. The inability and difficulty of other road users in detecting motorcycles either at day or at night have contributed to conspicuity related motorcycle crashes. This literature review attempts to understand the motorcycle conspicuity issues in road traffic. The review also analyses relevant types of conspicuity intervention in terms of its effectiveness in enhancing motorcycle conspicuity that had been discussed in past studies.
Methods: Using specific keywords and search terms, relevant articles were screened, identified and analyzed systematically using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.
Results: Twenty-seven final articles were reviewed and found that almost every part of motorcycle and motorcyclist’s conspicuity intervention have been covered in past studies. In terms of conspicuity aids, the majority of past studies discussed conspicuity enhancement in the frontal area, particularly on motorcycle daytime running headlight (DRH) color and configurations. Few other studies have discussed in other areas, particularly on rear running and brake light and motorcycle color. There were also numerous studies looking at motorcyclists’ appearances in terms of their attire and helmet color.
Conclusion: Motorcycle and motorcyclist’s appearances are highly associated with the risk of motorcycle crashes. The most important part of enhancing motorcycle conspicuity is to ensure motorcycle appearance is always in contrast with the road traffic environment.
Background: Cancer is the third cause of death following cardiovascular disease and accidents, in Iran. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the economic burden of cancer studies in Iran.
Methods: This systematic review examined the types of direct medical and non-medical costs and indirect costs in cancer patients and includes studies in English and Persian that were reviewed in Scopus, Web of science, SID, Iranmedex, Magiran and databases of Medline, etc., from 1995-2019.
Results: Twenty-one articles were included. Most studies have examined the direct costs of all types of cancers. The articles reviewed different types of cancer, such as prostate cancer (n=2), colorectal cancer (n=2), breast cancer (n=4), gastric cancer (n=2), oral and pharyngeal cancer (n=1), lung cancer (n=3), and blood cancer (n=4). The great number of studies were related to the gastrointestinal, breast and blood cancers. The gastrointestinal (gastric and colorectal) and breast cancer had the major economic burden than others.
Conclusion: It is necessary that special attention to patients, supportive measures to reduce the share of costs, and more budget allocation for prevention, screening and early detection being at priorities in the health system planning.
Background: We aimed to report the findings of the first Electrocardiography (ECG), before therapy initiation and receiving medication in COVID-19 patients, and to compare them with the ECG findings of healthy men.
Methods: A comprehensive and regular search was performed through the keywords (“Electrocardiographic” OR “ECG” OR; ‘‘COVID-19’’ OR ‘‘Coronavirus Disease 2019’’) without time and language restrictions in the Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar. After evaluating the quality and reviewing the biases, 27 studies were finally enrolled.
Results: In 27 studies with a total number of 3994 COVID-19 patients, and mean age of 62.7 yr, 1993 subjects were male. The most common type of arrhythmia in them, especially in severe and critical cases, was 7% based on 10 studies (Atrial Fibrillation); while in 7 studies, QTc interval prolong (≥ 460 msec) was 15% and in 5 studies, QTc interval prolong (≥ 500 msec) was 18%. In COVID-19 patients at the time of admission and healthy men, HR (b per / min) was 85, 61.7 and PR interval (msec) was 285.4, 156 and QRS duration (msec) was 95, 94.3 and QT (msec) was 380. 384.1 and QTc (msec) (Bazett's formula) was 437, 387.1, respectively. In most cases, the variables were higher for COVID-19 patients.
Conclusion: ECG abnormalities at the time of admission and prior to the initiation of medication that cause arrhythmic may have a clinically substantial effect on the course of the disease and confirm the effect of COVID-19 on increased cardiovascular risk in long-term.
Background: To assess prevalence and predictive factors for Nosocomial Infection (NI) in the military hospitals.
Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane and PreQuest databases were systematically searched for studies published between Jan 1991 and Oct 2017 that reported the prevalence of NI and predictive factors among military hospitals. We performed the meta-analysis using a random effects model. Subgroup analysis was done for heterogeneity and the Egger test to funnel plots was used to assess publication bias.
Results: Twenty-eight studies with 250,374 patients were evaluated in meta-analysis. The overall pooled estimate of the prevalence of NI was 8% (95% 6.0–9.0). The pooled prevalence was 2% (95% CI: 2.0–3.0) when we did sensitivity analysis and excluding a study. The prevalence was highest in burn unit (32%) and ICU (15%). Reported risk factors for NI included gender (male vs female, OR: 1.45), age (Age≥65, OR: 2.4), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.32), inappropriate use of antibiotics (OR: 2.35), received mechanical support (OR: 2.81), co-morbidities (OR: 2.97), admitted into the ICU (OR: 2.26), smoking (OR: 1.36) and BMI (OR: 1.09).
Conclusion: The review revealed a difference of prevalence in military hospitals with other hospitals and shows a high prevalence of NI in burn units. Therefore careful disinfection and strict procedures of infection control are necessary in places that serve immunosuppressed individuals such as burn patient. Moreover, a vision for the improvement of reports and studies in military hospitals to report the rate of these infections are necessary.
Background: Pathogenic intestinal protozoa are considered as a serious public health problem in developing countries. This study aimed to elucidate the overall prevalence and spatial distribution of three common human pathogenic intestinal protozoan infections in Iran.
Methods: Six English and Persian databases were explored for published papers on the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. in the general population of Iran from 2000 to 2015. All eligible data were collected using a pre-designed data extraction form, and the overall prevalence was estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis model. We used ArcMap for mapping the prevalence of the studied protozoa and clustering analysis.
Results: Altogether, 118 eligible papers from 24 provinces of Iran were included and analyzed. The weighted prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar, G. lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. infection among Iranian general population were calculated 1.3% (95% CI 1.1-1.5%), 10.6% (95% CI 9.6-11.5%) and 2% (95% CI 1.5-2.5%), respectively.
Conclusion: Our findings indicated human intestinal protozoan infections caused by E. histolytica/dispar, G. lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. have still public health importance in some parts of Iran.
Background: The relation between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase)MTHFR( polymorphisms and the risk of developing Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is not still clear, while there are reports about the association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with developing CLL, there are other reports that rolled out the association of MTHFR polymorphisms with developing CLL. Therefore herein we carried out this meta-analysis to clear the association of MTHFR polymorphisms with the risk of CLL,
Methods: A comprehensive search was performed through PubMed, Scopus and Embase from inception to Aug 2020. Odds ratios (OR) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for five possible genetic models were calculated. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Cochran Q test and the I2 statistic.
Results: Totals of 1290 cases and 1887 controls for the C677T polymorphism and 1117 cases and 1256 controls for the A1298C polymorphism were included in our analysis. Analyzing the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms genotypes showed an association between MTHFR polymorphism at A1298C under Allelic model and the risk of CLL (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.01–1.25), however there was no association between MTHFR polymorphism at MTHFR C677T and risk of CLL.
Conclusion: The risk of developing CLL might be associated with MTHFR polymorphism at A1298C under allelic model and not associated with MTHFR polymorphisms at C677T, However, further studies considering other factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, gene-gene interaction and environmental condition are needed to clear the true association of MTHFR polymorphisms with CLL.
Background: We aimed to explore the influence of midwifery care on the mode of delivery (MOD), duration of labor and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) of elderly parturients.
Methods: A total of 165 elderly parturients admitted to Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, China from May 2018 to Aug 2019 were allocated into a study group (n=85, midwifery care) and a control group (n=80, conventional nursing care). Visual analogue scale (VAS) was employed to estimate the pain of parturients, and self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were employed to evaluate the anxiety and depression status. The satisfaction of patients on nursing care was scored by a self-made satisfaction questionnaire.
Results: The parturients in the study group presented higher spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) rate (P < 0.05), and had shortened duration of first and second stages of labor and total duration of labor (P < 0.05). The incidence of both PPH and neonatal asphyxia in the study group was lower than that in the control group (both P < 0.05). The VAS, SAS and SDS scores in the study group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05), and the patients’ satisfaction in the study group was significantly higher (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Midwifery care is effective for the delivery of elderly parturients, which significantly improves VSD rate, shortens duration of labor, reduces incidence of PPH and neonatal asphyxia, as well as relives labor pain, anxiety and depression, and increases satisfaction of parturients.
Background: Malaria is a parasitic vector-borne disease endemic in the tropical and subtropical countries of the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the current activities of the detoxification enzymes in resistant and susceptible Anopheles gambiae s.l. in northern Nigeria.
Methods: Anopheles larvae were collected from northeast and northwestern Nigeria between Aug and Nov 2018. Biochemical analyses was carried out on the mosquitoes exposed to various insecticides (deltamethrin, DDT, bendiocarb, malathion) to measure and compare the enzymatic activities of the major detoxification enzymes (P450, GSTs, Esterase).
Results: High levels of resistance was observed; DDT 37%-53% (95%, CI: 29-61), bendiocarb 44%-55% (CI: 39-60) and deltamethrin 74%-82% (CI: 70-86). However, these mosquitoes were found to be susceptible to malathion 99%-100% (CI: 98-100). The P450 and GSTs enzymes were found to be elevated in the resistant mosquitoes exposed to deltamethrin (1.0240±0.1902); (1.3088±1.2478), DDT (1.7703±1.4528); (1.7462±0.9418) and bendiocarb (1.1814±0.0918); (1.4479±1.0083) compared to the Kisumu strain (0.764±0.4226); (0.6508±0.6542), (0.3875±0.3482); (0.4072±0.4916) and (0.6672±0.3949); (0.7126±0.7259) at P<0.05. Similarly, the resistant mosquitoes expressed increased activity to esterase (0.7606±1.1477), (0.3269±1.1957) and (2.8203±0.6488) compared to their susceptible counterpart (0.6841±0.7597), (0.7032±0.5380) and (0.6398±0.4159) at P<0.05. The enzyme ratio was found to be: P450 (1.341, 4.568 and 1.77); GSTs (2.011, 4.288 and 2.031); Esterases (1.111, 0.469 and 4.408). One way Anova and single sample t-test were also conducted to determine the effect of the enzymes on the resistant and susceptible strains.
Conclusion: High level of insecticide resistance was observed with significant elevation of detoxification enzymes activities in the resistant mosquitoes.
Background: A smart vision screening instrument was applied for screening low eyesight in primary school students in Wuhan, China. We aimed to compare the differences in test results between this instrument and lamp-box visual acuity charts, assess the validity of the screening results, and perform a preliminary comparison of the cost inputs of the two approaches.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted in Wuhan, China in 2017, vision tests were performed on the same day among enrolled primary school students by using the two approaches. The t-test and kappa test were performed to compare the differences, and the indicators of validity were calculated and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn. Existing cost-input data were collected and the budget was analyzed.
Results: In total, 1001 schoolchildren were included, and the prevalence of low eyesight was 21.18% (95% CI: 18.71-23.87%). The test results of the two approaches were not statistically different (t=1.929, P>0.05) and showed moderate consistency (kappa=0.519, P<0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the instrument were 84.90% (95% CI: 79.21-89.30%) and 91.63% (95% CI: 89.42-91.64%), respectively; positive predictive value was 73.17% (95% CI: 67.10-78.51%); and negative predictive value was 95.76% (95% CI: 94.00-97.04%). Area under the ROC curve was 0.883 (95% CI: 0.853-0.913) and significantly differed from 0.5 (P<0.001). The budget when using the instrument decreased 48.07% compared to that when using lamp-box visual acuity charts.
Conclusion: The test result of the instrument is reliable, and using it to conduct screening is cost-saving. Therefore, it might be popularized for vision monitoring in schoolchildren.
Background: In Romania, the abuse within the family of the minor child is a widespread phenomenon, its extent is insufficiently known because of ignorance/not reporting all the existing cases.
Methods: The participants of the research are represented by two independent groups from the NW Romania 2007-2011, one for sociological study (1544 parents and 1283 children) and another for forensic statistical study (2761 cases of abused children). The sociological study was carried out by analyzing questionnaires applied in schools located in Bihor County, both to children and parents. The statistical analysis was carried out by studying the cases of the physically, sexually, and psychologically abused minors, recorded at Bihor County Forensic Service.
Results: Physical neglect and physical abuse are the most common forms of child abuse. The forensic analysis highlight that most of the victims are male from urban areas. Physical abuse is more common in the 16-18 age group, psychological abuse in children aged between 6-10 yr, and sexual abuse in children under the age of 14 years. Girls were subject to sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional abuse, more frequently in rural areas; boys were most often victims of exploitation, physical, and emotional abuse in both urban and rural areas.
Conclusion: The results of the study led to the formulation of general guidelines on this phenomenon and highlight the need for proposals to improve the current situation of child abuse within the family.
Background: Rapid Health Impact Assessment (Rapid HIA) for Special Economic Zone (SEZ) has not been undertaken in Thailand. We aimed to develop a Rapid HIA model for policymaking by using Songkhla SEZ as a study model.
Methods: Four-stage of the research and development based on HIA process were used: 1) drafting the model using literature reviews and focus group discussions, 2) collecting additional information from 24 stakeholders, and conducting an in-depth interview with six informants, 3) verifying the model by drawing agreements on the model from 17 related agencies and experts, and 4) confirming the validity of the final model using seven experts. The study were conducted from Jan 2018 to Feb 2019. Content analysis and constant comparison were used to analyze the data.
Results: A four-step assessment model was obtained. They included public screening, scoping, assessing, and reviewing and influencing. Public screening is deduced from a meeting with organizations and related personnel. Public scoping is an outcome of literature reviewing and meeting with stakeholders and academics. The assessment step focuses on secondary data from related agencies and a participatory workshop with stakeholders and academics. Finally, a meeting with stakeholders and academics, including internet broadcasting, is the reviewing and influencing process.
Conclusion: This Rapid HIA model was specifically developed for SEZ policy. Reviewing and influencing steps were combined, whereas the monitoring and evaluation step was removed for further operations. This model depends on the official appointment of the steering committee HIA practitioners should be experienced academics from higher educational institutions.
Background: The difference in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-(OH) D3) level between the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and healthy pregnant women was analyzed, to provide the experimental evidence for the vitamin supplement in pregnant women, especially those with GDM.
Methods: Pregnant women (n=50) who received prenatal care in the Obstetrical Clinic of Xuzhou Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital in summer and winter of 2016 were enrolled. They were assigned to the summer GDM group, winter GDM group, summer control group and winter control group. The level of serum 25-(OH)D3 was determined using immunochromatography.
Results: The mean level of serum 25-(OH)D3 in pregnant women of four groups was lower than normal level. Compared with control group in corresponding season, the winter and summer GDM groups had significantly lower level of 25-(OH)D3 than the winter and summer control groups (P<0.05). The winter GDM group had significantly lower level of 25-(OH)D3 than the summer GDM group (P<0.05). The winter control group had significantly lower level of 25-(OH)D3 than the summer control group (P<0.05). The percentage of deficient 25-(OH)D3 level was the highest in winter GDM group. Vitamin D deficiency was severer in pregnant women with GDM than healthy pregnant women. In winter, vitamin D deficiency was severer than that in summer.
Conclusion: Pregnant women, especially those with GDM, should pay more attention to vitamin D supplementation.
Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most important pathogens in burn infections colonized in the nose and increase the risk of infections.
Methods: Overall, 85 S. aureus isolates were isolated from clinical and nasal hospitalized patients and health care workers (HCWs) in a burn unit and non-burn units in Isfahan from June 2016 and September 2016. Genes encoding penicillin-binding protein 2a (mecA) and adhesive surface proteins, including fibronectin-binding proteins (fnbA, fnbB), fibrinogen binding protein (fib), laminin-binding protein(eno), collagen binding protein (cna), elastin binding protein (ebps), intracellular adhesion operon (icaA and icaD) were detected using PCR method.
Results: The rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among burn and non-burn isolates were 62% (18/29) and 25% (14/56), respectively. The most prevalent MSCRAMMs genes in burn units were eno (86%) and fib (66%). The most common gene pattern in burn center was icaA+fib+eno. The frequency of icaD, fib and ebpS was higher in clinical samples than nasal samples. No relation was found between the MSCRAMMs genes in the burn unit and non-burn units.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of MRSA in burn center can be a new challenge for clinicians. The higher frequency of icaD, fib and ebpS in clinical isolates than nasal isolates may reflect the important role of these genes in colonization and pathogenesis of S. aureus.
Background: We attempt to identify specific differentially methylated and expressed genes in people with longevity family history, it will contribute to discover significant features about human longevity.
Methods: A prevalence study was conducted during October 2017 to January 2019 in Bama County of Guangxi, China and individuals were recruited and grouped into longevity family (n=60) and non-longevity family (n=60) to identify differentially methylated genes (DMGs). The expression profile dataset GSE16717 was downloaded from the GEO database in which individuals were divided into 3 groups, namely longevity (n=50), longevity offspring (n=50) and control (n=50) for identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs). It was considered significantly different when P or adjusted P£0.05.
Results: In total, 117 longevity-related hypermethylated genes enriched in interleukin secretion/production regulation, chemokine signaling pathway and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Another 296 significant key longevity-related DEGs primarily involved in protein binding, nucleus, cytoplasm, T cell receptor signaling pathway and Metabolic pathway, H19 and PFKFB4 were found to be both methylated and downregulated in people with longevity family history.
Conclusion: Human longevity-specific genes involve in many immunity regulations and cellular immunity pathways, H19 and PFKFB4 show hypermethylated and suppressed status in people with longevity family history and might serve as longevity candidate genes.
Background: In May 2014, Iran launched the most far-reaching reform for the health sector, so-called Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP), since introduction of the primary health care network, with a systematic plan to bring about Universal Health Coverage. We aimed to analyze the time to first all-caused rehospitalization and all-caused 30-day readmission rate in the biggest referral hospital of Northwest of Iran before and after the reform.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed discharge data for all hospitalization occurred in the six-year period of 2011-2017. The primary endpoints were readmission-free survival, and overall 30-day readmission rate. Using multivariate cox proportional hazards regression and logistic regression, we assessed between-period differences for readmission-free survival time and overall 30-day rehospitalization, respectively.
Results: Overall, 157969 admissions were included. After adjusting for available confounders including age; sex; ward of admission; length of stay; and admission in first/second half of year, the risk of being readmitted within 30 days after the reform was significantly higher (worse) compared to pre-reform hospitalization (odd ratio 1.22, P<0.001, 95% CI, 1.15-1.30 ). Adjusting for the same covariates, after-reform period also was slightly significantly associated with decreased (deteriorated) readmission-free time compared with pre-HSEP period (HR 1.06, P=0.005, 95% CI 1.01-1.11).
Conclusion: HSEP seems insufficient to improve neither readmission rate, nor readmission-free time. It is advisable some complementary strategies to be incorporated in the HSEP, such as continuity of care promotion, self-care enhancement, effective information flow, and post-discharge follow up programs.
Background: Listeria monocytogenes show high mortality among pregnant women and newborns. This study aimed to detect L. monocytogenes in pregnant women with a history of abortion and assess the serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility patterns, and its resistance genes.
Methods: Overall, 400 vaginal swabs were taken from pregnant women with a history of abortion in the past few years in a tertiary care hospital in Tehran, Iran, during 2015-2018. Antibiotics susceptibility to a panel of 10 antibiotics was determined using the standard disk diffusion method and the isolates serotyped by the agglutination method. The antimicrobial-resistant isolates were also screened for the presence of tetM, ermB and dfrD genes by PCR.
Results: Overall, 22 L. monocytogenes isolates were identified. High rates of resistance were observed for trimethoprim (50%; n=11), sulphamethoxazole (50%; n=11), tetracycline (45.45%; n=10) and gentamicin (36.36%; n=8). From 22 L. monocytogenes isolates, 13 (59.10 %), 5 (22.73%), 3 (13.63%) and 1 (4.54%) belonged to serotypes 4b, 1/2a, 1/2b, and 3c, respectively. The genetic determinant tetM was detected in 70% of the tetracycline-resistant isolates. Out of 11 trimethoprim-resistant isolates, 27.27% isolates contained dfrD. Moreover, the ermB gene was found in 83.33% of the erythromycin-resistant isolates.
Conclusion: Ampicillin and partly penicillin consider to be suitable antimicrobial agents to treat human listeriosis. Moreover, due to resistance against many antibiotics, it is necessary to continue monitoring and managing antimicrobial resistance.
Background: Because of the limited information available regarding peripheral vertigo (PV) in physicians, we conducted this study to clarify this issue.
Methods: We used Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to identify 26,309 physicians and an identical number of general population matched by age and sex. All the participants who had PV before 2007 and residents were excluded. By tracing their medical histories between 2007 and 2013, comparisons of PV risk between physicians and general population and among physicians were performed.
Results: Physicians had a significantly lower PV risk than the general population (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.811; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.662–0.994). In comparison among physicians, otolaryngologists had a significantly higher PV risk than other specialties. Physicians who were older or served in local hospitals or clinics had a significantly higher PV risk than physicians in medical centers.
Conclusion: Physicians had a significantly lower PV risk than the general population. Better medical knowledge in physicians than in the general population may explain the findings; however, further studies are warranted for elucidating the detailed mechanisms.
Background: Retraction is a mechanism for correcting the literature and a warning for readers in relation to publications that contain serious flaws or erroneous data. As a result of growth and development of Iranian publications in the last two decades, that brings unethical behavior of researchers led to retraction of their publications. We aimed to investigate Iranian retracted publications indexed in PubMed database.
Methods: All Iranian retracted publications published in PubMed up to Dec 2017 have been retrieved. Bibliographic information of retracted publications, retraction notice, time lag between article publication date and the date of retraction notice, reasons of retraction, Issuer of retraction and acknowledge information of retracted publication were recorded. Additionally, citation data of retracted publications before 2013 were analyzed.
Results: Overall, 164 Iranian retracted publications were identified. Meantime lag was 20.8 months. "Islamic Azad University" and "Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS)" were two affiliations that have received highest number of retracted publications. The most issuer of retraction publications was editor-in-chief and the most mentioned reasons for retractions were authorship issues, plagiarism, and redundant publication. Thirty-three (20.12%) publications have received funds from various agencies. Citation study of retracted publications indicates that these publications have received 789 citations (Citation per publication=11.6).
Conclusion: Although Iranian retracted publications represent small portion of all Iranian publications, but the number of retracted publications has increased. More than half of retracted publications have had authorship issues and plagiarism that requires more attention to research ethics authorities.
Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease caused by Fasciola spp. We report five serologically and molecularly confirmed cases in an emerging region in Iran. A retrospective, case series study, performed in Lorestan Province, west of Iran between January 2015 and June 2016. From 1256 patients examined, 16 patients had positive serum ELISA. Five cases were approved as infected with fasciolosis using stool exam and PCR. Age ranged from 24 to 80 yr with mean age of 45 years. All of patients were adults and four of them had abdominal and back pain. Other symptoms included fever and chills, coughing and sore throat, weight loss, cutaneous manifestations. All patients lived in the rural environment, and four reported the ingestion of raw aquatic plants such as watercress. In fecal examination for fluke eggs, four samples were positive for F. hepatica eggs. Conventional PCR analysis showed that five human stools were positive for F. hepatica. All of 5 patients were treated with the usual dose of triclabendazole. A history of recent consumption of raw aquatic plants (in 4 out of 5 patients) is an important finding, but in one patient the source of infection remained unclear. Lorestan should be considered as an emerging region for this disease and further research in this province should be carried out.
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