Motorcycle Conspicuity Issues and Intervention: A Systematic Review

  • Muhamad Syukri ABDUL KHALID Mail Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia AND Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research (MIROS), Jalan TKS 1, Taman Kajang Sentral, 43000, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Nor Kamaliana KHAMIS Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Mohd Radzi ABU MANSOR Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Azhar HAMZAH Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research (MIROS), Jalan TKS 1, Taman Kajang Sentral, 43000, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
Conspicuity, Motorcycle conspicuity, Motorcyclist conspicuity, Motorcycle safety, Road safety


Background: Conspicuity has been one of the key factors in motorcycle road crashes around the world. The inability and difficulty of other road users in detecting motorcycles either at day or at night have contributed to conspicuity related motorcycle crashes. This literature review attempts to understand the motorcycle conspicuity issues in road traffic. The review also analyses relevant types of conspicuity intervention in terms of its effectiveness in enhancing motorcycle conspicuity that had been discussed in past studies.

Methods: Using specific keywords and search terms, relevant articles were screened, identified and analyzed systematically using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.

Results: Twenty-seven final articles were reviewed and found that almost every part of motorcycle and motorcyclist’s conspicuity intervention have been covered in past studies. In terms of conspicuity aids, the majority of past studies discussed conspicuity enhancement in the frontal area, particularly on motorcycle daytime running headlight (DRH) color and configurations. Few other studies have discussed in other areas, particularly on rear running and brake light and motorcycle color. There were also numerous studies looking at motorcyclists’ appearances in terms of their attire and helmet color.

Conclusion: Motorcycle and motorcyclist’s appearances are highly associated with the risk of motorcycle crashes. The most important part of enhancing motorcycle conspicuity is to ensure motorcycle appearance is always in contrast with the road traffic environment.


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How to Cite
ABDUL KHALID MS, KHAMIS NK, ABU MANSOR MR, HAMZAH A. Motorcycle Conspicuity Issues and Intervention: A Systematic Review. Iran J Public Health. 50(1):24-34.
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