Review Article

The Prevalence of Vascular Dementia in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis from 2009-2019


Background: Vascular dementia (VD), as the second-largest type of dementia, is a serious stage of vascular cognitive impairment. It is significant to conduct retrospective epidemiological studies to characterize further the disease for public health. This study estimated the prevalence of VD among the population aged 18 yr and older in China.

Methods: Epidemiological investigations on VD published in journals and covering the period from 1999 to 2019 were identified manually and online by using Chinese databases (such as Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Chinese science-technology databases, and the Chinese Wanfang and Chongqing VIP database) and English databases (such as PubMed, Elsevier Science Bibliographic Databases and Cochrane library). Studies were included if the diagnostic criteria for VD are clear and the quality of the included literature was evaluated using the quality evaluation criteria of epidemiological research methods. A random-effects model was employed according to the statistical test of homogeneity.

Results: Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria, including 100,923 subjects and 977 VD patients. The pooled prevalence of VD was 0.96% (95% [confidence interval, CI] 0.63%~2.1%). The prevalence of VD increased with increasing age. There was a higher prevalence of VD in the northeast China population, in urban areas and males.

Conclusion: We stratified the included studies based on age, location, gender, and geographical distribution for prevalence. The prevalence of VD has slowly risen since 1999. It is obviously different between the North & South and urban &rural districts. While there are many benefits of systematic reviews, the methods presented have inherent limitations.

1. Santini ZI, Koyanagi A, Tyrovolas S, et al (2015). Social network typologies and mortality risk among older people in China, India, and Latin America: A 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based cohort study. Soc Sci Med, 147:134-43.
2. Pasquet P, Biyong AM, Rikong-Adie H, Befidi-Mengue R, Garba MT, Froment A (1999). Age at menarche and urbanization in Cameroon: current status and secular trends. Ann Hum Biol, 26(1): 89-97.
3. Zhang M, Chang YP, Liu YJ, Gao L, Porock D (2018). Burden and Strain among Familial Caregivers of Patients with Dementia in China. Issues Ment Health Nurs, 39(5): 427-432.
4. Fu L, Wang Y, He L (2020). Factors Associ-ated with the Psychological Health of Caregiving Older Parents and Support from Their Grown Children: Results from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health,17(2):556.
5. Smith EE (2017). Clinical presentations and epidemiology of vascular dementia. Clin Sci (Lond),131(11):1059-1068.
6. Jaul E, Meiron O (2017). Systemic and Dis-ease-Specific Risk Factors in Vascular Dementia: Diagnosis and Prevention. Front Aging Neurosci, 9:333
7. Kalaria RN, Maestre GE, Arizaga R, et al (2008). World Federation of Neurology Dementia Research Group. Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in develop-ing countries: prevalence, management, and risk factors. Lancet Neurol, 7(9):812-26.
8. Suh GH, Shah A (2001). A review of the ep-idemiological transition in dementia--cross-national comparisons of the indi-ces related to Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 104(1):4-11.
9. Kim YJ, Han JW, So YS, et al (2014). Preva-lence and trends of dementia in Korea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Ko-rean Med Sci, 29(7):903-12.
10. Ferri CP, Prince M, Brayne C, et al (2005). Alzheimer's Disease International. Global prevalence of dementia: a Delphi consen-sus study. Lancet, 366(9503):2112-7.
11. Li K, Wei S, Liu Z, et al (2018). The Preva-lence of Alzheimer's Disease in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Iran J Public Health, 47(11):1615-1626.
12. Sun C, Liu FY, Wang XY, et al (2000). An Epidemiological survey of Dementia in Rural Areas aged 60 in Dalian. Zhong Guo Shen Jing Shen Bing Xue Za Zhi,18(11):1711-1711.
13. Fei JK, Wei QL, Li Z (2000). Prevalence of cognitive dysfunction in rural population in Minhang District, Shanghai, China. Shang Hai Yi Yao, 39(2):146-148.
14. Zou N, Zhu DY, Zang L, Ding D (2003). Epidemiological analysis of vascular de-mentia in people aged 65 and over in Chongqing. Zhong Guo Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 3(5):690-691.
15. Yang CL (2003). A study on the incidence and risk factors of vascular dementia in some urban and rural areas of Hunan province. Zhong Hua Lao Nian Xin Nao Xue Guan Za Zhi, 6(3):132-135
16. Shen BY, Wang JL, Xiao ZY (2003). Analy-sis on the prevalence of senile dementia among people aged 60 years and above in Shanghai, China. Zhong Hua Liu Xing Xue Za Zhi, 35(20):161-4.
17. Liang Q, Lu XH, Wu ZLL, Su EY (2003). The incidence of dementia in elderly pa-tients with cardiovascular and cerebro-vascular diseases in Guangdong prov-ince. Zhong Hua Lao Nian Nian Nian Xin Nao Xue Guan Za Zhi, 15(2):208-208.
18. Wu TH, Zhang CL, Cui L (2003). Nutrition-al status and related factors of Senile de-mentia patients in Hainan Island. Zhong Guo Ying Yang Za Zhi, 26(019):278-280.
19. Ma XJ, Cang HQ, Wang LH, Sun JY, Li JS (2005). Epidemiology and related factors of Senile Dementia patients in urban and rural areas of Guangdong Province. Si Chuan Jing Shen Wei Sheng, 32(5):431-436.
20. Yuan Y, Wu L, Yang FR, Feng D, Ge DX (2005). Effects of nutritional indicators and prognosis in patients with Dementia Disease. Zhong Guo Zhong Xi Yi Za Zhi, 16(1):129-132.
21. Tang MN,Lu HX, Zhou CW (2005). A sur-vey of dementia prevalence in urban and rural population aged 60 and above in Si-chuan province. Zhong Guo Jin Shen Bing Xue Za Zhi, 33(6):340-344.
22. Tan GX, Wang GP, Jie R (2007). Investiga-tion on the epidemiology of vascular de-mentia in Hubei Province. Guo Ji Lao Nian Yi Za Zhi, 15(1):22-25.
23. Huang XQ, Ding HX, Guo ZZ (2007). An epidemiological survey of cerebrovascular dementia in Guizhou county. Zhong Hua Bao Jian Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2(4):40-41.
24. Wang YF, Xie YY, Zhao ZG (2008). An ep-idemiological survey of senile dementia in Fuzhou, Fujian Province. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Shen Jing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 25(10):890-890.
25. Yan ZS, Gao WL, Gu ZS, Shan XY, Bao F (2008). An epidemiological survey of se-nile dementia in Fuzhou, Fujian Province. Hunan Yi Yao, 39(1):100-105.
26. Chen LS, Zhang ST, Zhou Z (2009). A cur-rent report on the epidemiology of senile dementia in fujian. Zhong Guo Lao Nian, 18(10):736-739.
27. Fan X, Xiao ZZ, Li QX, Liao W, Li LY (2011). An epidemiological survey of se-nile dementia in Shaanxi Province. Zhong Guo Lin Chuang Xin Li Xue, 999(4):221-223.
28. Sun HM, Wei HJ,Xu L (2012). An epidemio-logical survey of Senile Dementia in Bao-ding. Xian Dai Yu Feng Yi Xue, 2008, 35(5):847-848.
29. Liu TZ, Xu HD, Xiao DB, Dai JE, Chen QF (2013). An epidemiological study of Senile dementia in Henan Province. Zhong Hua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 24(8):734-736.
30. Zhang CH, Xu L (2013). Epidemiological investigation of senile dementia in Shan-dong. Zhong Guo Xin Li Wei Sheng Za Zhi, 6(2):49-52.
31. Pei JX, Yan JL, Chen ZH (2015). An epi-demiological survey of senile dementia in Tianshui District. Lin Chuang Jing Shen Xin Li Xue Za Zhi, 10(3):137-138.
32. Zhao JX, Lin GQ, Chou YQ, Feng TZ (2015). Epidemiological investigation of senile dementia in Xingtai district aged over 65. Zhong Guo Lin Chuang Kang Fu, 7(28):3848-3849.
33. Ji YX, Li JE, Wang HZ, Kong LJ (2016). Epidemiological investigation of Senile dementia in the region. Jiang Xi Yi Yao, (9):837-838.
34. Jiang XX, Sun CY, Kang ZS, Wu K (2016). An epidemiological survey of senile de-mentia in Mentougou District, Beijing. Shen Jing Ji Bing Yu Jing Shen Wei Sheng, 10(2):196-198.
35. Zou QL, Chen K, Bao LM, Ruan QL (2016). An epidemiological investigation of Senile dementia in Jilin Province. Zhe Jiang Zhong Yi Yao, 38(5):654-656.
36. Tian GF,Sun CW, Qin F, Zhang J (2017). Epidemiological characteristics of vascu-lar dementia in Guangzhou. Zhong Guo Yang Lao Yi Xue, 30(06):97-99.
37. Liu ZI, Sun SP, Zhu DL, Tian QQ, Chu LY, Sang SL (2018). An epidemiological survey of Senile Dementia in Jiangsu province. Cheng Du Yi Yao, 28(1):7-9.
38. Zhang ZX, Zahner GE, Román GC, et al (2005). Dementia subtypes in China: prevalence in Beijing, Xian, Shanghai, and Chengdu. Arch Neurol, 62(3):447-53.
39. Liu L, Guo XE, Zhou YQ, Xia JL (2003). Prevalence of dementia in China. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord,15(4):226-30.
40. Dong MJ, Peng B, Lin XT, Zhao J, Zhou YR, Wang RH (2007). The prevalence of dementia in the People's Republic of China: a systematic analysis of 1980-2004 studies. Age Ageing, 36(6):619-24.
41. Zhang Y, Xu Y, Nie H, Lei T, Wu Y, Zhang L, Zhang M (2012). Prevalence of de-mentia and major dementia subtypes in the Chinese populations: a meta-analysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1980-2010. J Clin Neurosci, 19(10):1333-7.
42. Kapasi A, Schneider JA (2016). Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment, clinical Alzheimer's disease, and dementia in older persons. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1862(5):878-86.
43. Grau-Olivares M, Arboix A (2009). Mild cognitive impairment in stroke patients with ischemic cerebral small-vessel dis-ease: a forerunner of vascular dementia? Expert Rev Neurother, 9(8):1201-17.
44. Li G, Shen YC, Chen CH, Zhau YW, Li SR, Lu M (1991). A three-year follow-up study of age-related dementia in an urban area of Beijing. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 83(2):99-104.
45. Bennett DA. Editorial comment on 'Preva-lence of dementia in the United States: the aging, demographics, and memory study' by Plassman et al. Neuroepidemiology, 29(1-2):133-5.
46. Meguro K, Akanuma K, Meguro M, Kasai M, Ishii H, Yamaguchi S (2012). Progno-sis of vascular mild cognitive impairment includes vascular dementia onset and death by cardiovascular disease: reanalysis from the Osaki-Tajiri project. J Stroke Cer-ebrovasc Dis, 21(7):607-11.
47. Zi W, Wang H, Yang D, et al (2017). Clinical Effectiveness and Safety Outcomes of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ante-rior Circulation Ischemic Stroke in China. Cerebrovasc Dis, 44(5-6):248-258.
48. Polyakova TA, Levin OS (2016). Cerebral microbleeds in cerebrovascular and neu-rodegenerative diseases with cognitive impairment. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova, 116(6):19-27.
IssueVol 50 No 1 (2021) QRcode
SectionReview Article(s)
Chinese population Vascular dementia Dementia; Prevalence Epidemiology Systematic review Meta-analysis China

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
JIAO C, WEI S, LIU T, BAO X, CHEN W, LIAO Z, PENG W, WEI W, LIU Z. The Prevalence of Vascular Dementia in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis from 2009-2019. Iran J Public Health. 50(1):11-23.