Vol 48 No 9 (2019)

Published: 2019-09-03

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 290 | views: 258 | pages: 1555-1565

    Background: Ancylostomiasis is a prevalent and global parasitic disease, including China. A systematic review is significant to understand the epidemiological features of hookworm and provide guidance for prevention and treatment.

    Methods: We systematically searched academic databases and assessed 944 papers published from1955-2015 to establish the comprehensive analysis of prevalence of hookworm disease in China. We searched Chinese databases, including CNKI, Wanfang and VIP, for literature with the subject word "Ancylostomiasis and hookworm". The data were analyzed with SPSS 19.0 software using Spearman correlation analysis. Results were statistically significant for a P-value of <0.01.

    Results: The search yielded 532,151 cases from epidemiological investigation and 7294 cases based on hospital diagnosis. Hookworm infection was highest (15.83%) in Fujian province, with high rates also found in East China, Southwest China, Central China and Southern China and lower rates in Northwest China, North China and Northeast China. In terms of occupation, farmers had the highest proportion of infections (72.54%). There was no correlation between epidemiological investigations and hospital-diagnosed cases. However, there was significant positive correlation between hospital-diagnosed cases and misdiagnosed cases. The proportion of hospital-misdiagnosed cases was 32.80%.

    Conclusion: Ancylostomiasis is a serious public health problem that negatively influences health and hinders socioeconomic development. Positive measures are required by both health services and individuals to prevent and control hookworm disease.



  • XML | PDF | downloads: 176 | views: 218 | pages: 1566-1576

    Background: We aimed to investigate the association between lung cancer and tea-drinking habits of different subgroup populations.

    Methods: Systematic search of the PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Sinomed databases from database construction until January 2017 for English and Chinese language articles on association of lung cancer and tea drinking. Meta-analysis was used to calculate the combined odds ratio (OR) value and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to evaluate the quality of the studies and Q-test and I2 was used for heterogeneity testing.

    Results: Forty two papers were included, 30 case-control studies included 14578 lung cancer patients and 180574 controls, 12 cohort studies included 543825 subjects, of which the outcome was 5085 with lung cancer. Tea drinkers were found to have a decreased OR of lung cancer compared with non-tea drinkers (OR 0. 80, 95% CI: 0. 73, 0. 87). Consumption of green, black or unspecified tea has a protective effect compared with not drinking tea at all. Increased intake of green tea to 7. 5 g per day can further reduce the OR of lung cancer (OR 0. 69, 95% CI: 0. 48-0. 98). Tea consumption had a protective effect against lung cancer in non-smokers, Further analysis found that drinking of one or more cups of tea a day has a protective effect on smokers (OR 0. 79, 95%CI: 0. 64–0. 96).

    Conclusion: Tea drinking could be a protective factor in lung cancer.



  • XML | PDF | downloads: 142 | views: 168 | pages: 1577-1588

    Background: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) as the commonly used renin-angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitor are widely used in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), but the effect is controversy. In this study, we used a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ACEI and/or ARB for the patients with IgAN.

    Methods: Two investigators independently searched the PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, EBSCO, and Wiley databases without language restrictions. We collected the clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on “ACEI and/or ARB for the patients with IgAN” published before December 31, 2018, and performed data extraction and quality analysis on the included studies, and analyzed data using RevMan 5.2 software.

    Results: A total of 10 RCTs (635 patients) were included in our analysis. Alone use of ACEI (MD=-0.75, 95%CI: -1.28-0.21, P=0.006) or ARB (MD=-0.56, 95%CI: -0.82-0.30, P< 0.001) or a combination of ACEI and ARB (MD=-0.63, 95%CI: -0.87-0.38, P<0.001) significantly reduced the levels of proteinuria in patients with IgAN. However, whether using ACEI or ARB alone or in combination with ACEI and ARB, there was no significant effect on serum creatinine, 24-creatinine clearance and glomerular filtration rate in patients with IgAN.

    Conclusion: The use of ACEI and ARB significantly reduces the levels of proteinuria in patients with IgAN, but more large-sample RCTs with long-term follow-up are needed for confirming our results and guiding clinical treatment.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 193 | views: 313 | pages: 1589-1599

    Background: Clostridium difficile is the most common causes of hospital-acquired diarrhea affecting particularly hospitalized patients globally. This organism has re-emerged in recent years with significant morbidity and mortality. The present study aimed to estimate the burden of C. difficile infection (CDI) and to acquire information on the overall rates of community- and hospital-acquired CDI in western Asia.

    Methods: A systematic literature search was performed to identify articles published from the eight Persian Gulf countries in western Asia including Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates in the electronic databases within Jan of 2000 to Dec of 2017. Then, 20 publications which met our inclusion criteria were selected for data extraction and analysis by Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software.

    Results: Twenty studies reported the prevalence of toxigenic strains of C. difficile among patients from Persian Gulf countries, of these the pooled prevalence of CDI was 9% (95% CI: 6.5%-12.5%). Totally, 8 studies showed the prevalence of hospital-acquired CDI, from those studies the prevalence of CDI was estimated 8.4% (95% CI: 4.9%-14.1%). Moreover, 7 studies reported the prevalence of community-acquired CDI, from those studies the prevalence of CDI was estimated 1.8% (95% CI: 1.2%-2.9%).

    Conclusion: The prevalence of CDI in western Asia is lower than southern and eastern region. Moreover, the lower prevalence of community-acquired CDI compared to hospital-acquired CDI, indicate that the source of infection in western Asia is more likely in the hospitals.



Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 212 | views: 187 | pages: 1600-1606

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the basic performance and basic parameters of a new type of blood vacuum tube cap opening and closing machine for further application.

    Methods: From July 2013 to March 2018, 110, 000 cases involved in the clinical trials in Third People's Hospital of Dongguan City were selected as the instrument group, and 10,000 cases were selected as the manual operation group. The application demonstration and instrument performance assessment were performed by five units. Unified evaluation indicatory system and the standard of assessment were set up. The instrument assessments and demonstration tests were carried out by these 5 units. Finally, the basic parameters of the instrument were analyzed and compared.

    Results: The new instrument had excellent performance, and thirty parameters were excellent. Five patents had been granted already. There were no differences between the instrument groups in different units, and among different units. However, there were some differences in the manual operation group between different units. The average cap opening time was 21 "04 in the instrument group, and 152" 48 in the manual operation group (P<0.05); the cap closing time was 18 "56 in the instrument group, and 104"24 in the manual operation group (P<0.05). The instrument group outperformed the manual operation group in cap closing time, pollution rate, spill rate and failure rate (P<0.01). The design of the instrument was original.

    Conclusion: This blood vacuum tube cap opening and closing machine can perform a wide variety of functions, and it is stable, intelligent and superior to manual operation. More efforts need to be made for the industrialization of this instrument.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 286 | views: 360 | pages: 1607-1616

    Background: After the revision of the Medical Service Act, Article 27-2, in 2009, Korea has been actively involved in the medical tourism industry. The number of foreign patients visiting Korea has consistently increased coming from various countries around the world. Currently, the industry is striving to achieve qualitative growth in medical tourism. Accordingly, there is a necessity to analyze and review policies for the development of medical tourism to create a sustainable market.

    Methods: We analyzed the information of foreign patients visiting Korea over a period of last 10 years. Statistical data were obtained from the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI) and Korea Tourism Organization (KTO).

    Results: The number of foreign patients visiting Korea had increased from 60,201 in 2009 to 321,574 in 2017. Since 2017, the number of patients from the U.S., Russia and Middle East has been on an upward trend while the number of Chinese patients has decreased. This result clearly shows that international affairs and cultural aspects have a significant impact on the selection of medical tourism.

    Conclusion: It is suggested to i) establish the medical tourism information system and brand the Korean medical tourism offering a joint treatment of western and oriental medicine, ii) prepare the expansion of the industry to the medical wellness tourism industry by training global healthcare experts and iii) organize tailored medical services with consideration of various backgrounds and culture of foreign patients.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 130 | views: 198 | pages: 1617-1626

    Background: We aimed to establish a reference standard of Body Mass Index (BMI) for the growth of preschool children in China.

    Methods: We monitored and obtained the height and weight of 50702 children aged 3-6 yr in 31 provinces in mainland China in 2014. The reference standard and percentile curve of BMI preschool children aged 3-6 yr old were formulated by using Lambda-Median-Sigma (LMS) method in China.

    Results: The common grounds of the male and female children were as follows: the percentile maps were similar in shape; the graphs of children aged 4-6 were approximately horn shaped. The differences between male and female children were as follows: the BMI values of male children in the same age group and the same percentile were higher than those of the female children. The change pattern of male children was larger than that of female children. BMI of 3 yr old and 6 yr old children was larger than those of 4 yr old and 5 yr old. During the change from low percentile to high percentile, the BMI values of Chinese male children exceeded WHO to a larger extent, and the BMI values of Chinese female children were substantially consistent with WHO, but the high percentile greater than P95 exceeded WHO.

    Conclusion: The BMI growth chart developed can be applied in monitoring the growth and nutrition of preschool children in China. We recommend the promotion of the results in the field of preventive health care.



  • XML | PDF | downloads: 157 | views: 278 | pages: 1627-1635

    Background: The health status of the population of different ages was examined. Since children are very vulnerable to environmental factors, our goal was to examine their health status and compare them with those of the older population. Also one of the important tasks of our study was the installation of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for children and adults of different sexes.

    Methods: During our research, we calculated the air pollution index, investigated the incidence statistics of the population, and calculated the lifetime average daily dose (LADD). We investigated the content of sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen oxide, ammonium and hydrogen carbonates and compared it with safe level of exposure.

    Results: In Aktobe, the Republic of Kazakhstan the external environment is polluted with boron and chromium, and in Aktau - with organic hydrocarbons. High morbidity rates in adolescents were found for endocrine disorders, digestive system diseases, and musculoskeletal system disorders. Estimating the prevalence and incidence of newly diagnosed diseases among women in Aktau showed that the overall incidence rate, as well as the incidence of respiratory and skin diseases, declines with age. The incidence of the genitourinary system and the number of nervous disorders increase, and the number of neoplasms increases in men population. A study of carcinogenic risks showed that children with Aktau, especially boys, have the greatest risk of cancer.

    Conclusion: The conducted research shows that environmental factors have a big impact on the health of the population.



  • XML | PDF | downloads: 141 | views: 254 | pages: 1636-1646

    Background: Urban heat island (UHI) is being intensified with the progress of urbanization. Meanwhile, respiratory diseases caused by high temperature become common. This study explores the influences of UHI on respiratory diseases (J00-J99) and the evolutionary characteristics of the spatial pattern of such influences.

    Methods: The pattern–process–function and the influencing mechanism of UHI on respiratory diseases were evaluated through landscape pattern indexes from 1992 to 2018 in Tianjin, China. The basis was on data from Landsat TM/OLI/TIRS remote-sensing images, meteorological stations, and mortality of respiratory diseases.

    Results: The fluctuating influence of UHI on the respiratory diseases in Tianjin has increased from 1992 to 2018, showing a significant phase-based characteristic. During 2011-2018, the influence has soared greatly, and mortality risk has increased by 101%, and the influenced area has reached 349 km². Furthermore, the regional space clustered, and the influenced patches are in irregular shape, and the highly influenced area is enlarged. Moreover, the indexes of the landscape level of the influenced areas all decrease. The patches at all levels are fragmented and distributed discontinuously. Spatially, the influenced areas gradually extend from the urban center to the suburbs.

    Conclusion: UHI causes a higher mortality of respiratory diseases because it increases daily average air temperature in summer. With respect to landscape pattern, the influenced areas at low level is highly interconnected and relatively concentrated, whereas the influenced area at high level is distributed in clusters. In general, the influenced area is fragmented and discontinuously distributed in urban center.



  • XML | PDF | downloads: 158 | views: 192 | pages: 1647-1653

    Background: In 2015, Indonesia government targeted to eliminate malaria in Java Island. Nevertheless, until now malaria still occurs, including in Samigaluh, Kulon Progo District although many malaria programs has been run. Complexity and dynamic of the population also limited budget may become the reason of malaria combat difficulties. Subsequently, a method to direct the policymaker on how to provide program effectively and efficiently was needed.  We examined malaria risk factor using statistical and cluster analysis.

    Methods: A quantitative study with case-control approach was conducted during Spring 2017 in Samigaluh II Public Health Centre, Indonesia. The structured questioner was used to collect the information from both of case and control which were people who had blood examination regarding malaria diagnosed during January-December 2016. Global Positioning System was used to record the geographical position of house participant which was used in cluster analysis.

    Results: Occupation was recognized as the significant risk factor to malaria. One most likely cluster was detected and translated as the source of transmission because of its fall in malaria hotspot.

    Conclusion: Satscan be able to detect a spatial cluster of malaria case and a promising method for supporting malaria control. 


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 129 | views: 222 | pages: 1654-1662

    Background: We aimed to investigate the expression level of breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA2) and its changes during chemotherapy in patients with different pathological types of mammary cancer (MC).

    Methods: Overall, 102 patients treated in Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, China from April 2013 to August 2017 were enrolled as experimental group, including 58 patients with noninvasive MC (group A) and 44 with invasive MC (group B). Fifty healthy volunteers at the same time were enrolled as control group. The relative expression of BRCA2 in the blood of MC patients was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR).

    Results: In the experimental group, the expression level of BRCA2 in group A was higher than that in group B before chemotherapy (P<0.001); the expression level in group A and group B 1 month after chemotherapy was higher than that before chemotherapy (P<0.001); the expression level in the both groups 3 months after chemotherapy was higher than that 1 month after chemotherapy (P<0.001); the expression level of BRCA2 in blood of group A increased gradually before, 1 month and 3 months after chemotherapy (P<0.001). The expression level of BRCA2 in blood of group B increased gradually at the same time points (P<0.001).

    Conclusion: BRCA2 is over-expressed in noninvasive MC patient and under-expressed in invasive MC patient. And it can be used as an index for monitoring the condition of MC patients with different pathological types during chemotherapy.



  • XML | PDF | downloads: 151 | views: 256 | pages: 1663-1670

    Background: Frailty is a common syndrome in elderly people, but has not been fully studied in China. We aimed to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of frailty and analyze its risk factors in elderly people in rural areas of China.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between September and October 2016. Overall, 4323 elderly people over 60 yr were enrolled by cluster random sampling method from the Fengxian District of Shanghai, China. These subjects voluntarily participated in the health examination of the 2016 National Basic Public Health Service Program. In addition to regular examination items, frailty assessment was performed on the basis of Fried frailty phenotype criteria.

    Results: The prevalence of pre-frailty and frailty was 49.4% and 6.8%, respectively. Advanced age (OR=1.44 for pre-frailty and OR=2.01 for frailty, 65-74 years old; OR=3.02 for pre-frailty and OR=14.13 for frailty,75-84 years old; OR=8.17 for pre-frailty and OR=71.71 for frailty, ≥85 years old), female (OR=1.32 for pre-frailty and OR=1.97 for frailty), stroke history (OR=1.75 for pre-frailty and OR=2.43 for frailty), vision decrease (OR=1.98 for pre-frailty and OR=2.70 for frailty), and anemia (OR=1.95 for pre-frailty and OR=3.64 for frailty) were common risk factors for both pre-frailty and frailty.

    Conclusion: Healthy elderly people in the rural areas of Shanghai have relatively high prevalence of pre-frailty and frailty. Advanced age, female, stroke history, decreased vision, and anemia are the risk factors for pre-frailty and frailty.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 144 | views: 246 | pages: 1671-1680

    Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE), larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, immunodiagnostics is still a challenge due to asymptomatic nature of CE during the early phase of infection and imperfection of diagnostic antigens. In silico design and assessments of hydatid cyst antigens provide preeminent information for novel and favorable diagnostic methods.

    Methods: This study was performed at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2018. The sequences of B2, EPC1, B1 and B4 antigens were collected and analyzed for sequence conservancy by protein BLAST search and CLUSTALW multiple sequence alignment. The secondary and 3D structures were predicted using ab initio and threading methods. The antigens were analyzed for their B cell epitopic content using linear and conformational B cell epitope prediction tools. The final diagnostic antigen was designed by fusing the selected epitopic determinants form each antigen.

    Results: Given the conservancy results and B cell epitope predictions, the whole B2 antigen along with amino acids spanning 1-50, 1-30, and 30-81 regions of EPC1, B1 and B4 antigens were selected to design the final antigen. High surface accessibility (75%), protein stability, low free energy and high number of amino acids involved in B cell epitopes were desirable properties for the final antigen to interact with antibodies against CE.

    Conclusion: In silico design of such antigens is useful for better diagnosis of CE, decrease the cost and the time required for antigen design, while avoiding the ethical aspects of in vivo studies.



  • XML | PDF | downloads: 216 | views: 244 | pages: 1681-1689

    Background: Iranian public hospitals have been excessively changing during the healthcare reform since 2014. This study aimed to examine the technical efficiency of public hospitals during before and after the implementation of Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP) and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors.

    Methods: Forty-two public hospitals were selected in Tehran, Iran, from 2012 to 2016. Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency sample hospitals. Tobit regression was used to relate the technical efficiency scores to seven explanatory variables in 2016, the last year.

    Results: Overall, 24 (57.1%), 26 (61.9%), 26 (61.9%), 24 (57.1%) and 21 (50%) of the 42 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2012 to 2016, with average technical efficiency of 0.859, 0.836, 0.845, 0.905 and 0.934, respectively. The average pure technical efficiency in sample hospitals increased from 0.860 in 2010 (before the HSEP) to 0.944 in 2012 (after the HSEP). Tobit regression showed that average length of stay had a negative impact on technical efficiency of hospitals. In addition, bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency.

    Conclusion: Despite government support, public hospitals operated relatively inefficien. Managers can enhance technical efficiency by increasing bed occupancy rate through shortening the average length of stay, proportioning the number of doctors, nurses, and beds along with service quality assurance.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 131 | views: 182 | pages: 1690-1696

    Background: Adherence to medical recommendations is very important to control gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), as one of the most important disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we explored the impact of socio-economic status (SES) on the adherence of a cohort of GDM in Iran.

    Methods: In this prospective study, 230 pregnant women with confirmed GDM were followed from Feb to Jun 2013 in a referral diabetic care center in Iran. The SES of subjects were quantified using a combined score generated by principal component analysis (PSA). Medical adherence score of subjects was measured in three follow up visits in a range of 0 to 10 and were linked to SES using linear regression model.

    Results: The adherence scores women in the first, second, and third follow up visits were 5.06±2.12, 5.46±2.06, and 5.08±1, respectively. Women fourth quartile of SES (the highest level of SES) has a least compliance to medical orders in comparison to first quartile of SES (the lowest level of SES) with the OR -2.75 (95% Cl: -3.17, -2.23).

    Conclusion: The medical adherence of pregnant women with GDM is significantly poorer in high SES groups. Therefore, as an important determinant, we may target high SES pregnant women to control the adverse effects of the disorder more efficiently.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 132 | views: 196 | pages: 1697-1703

    Background: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) polymorphisms, C−1562 T and -90 (CA) n repeats, which influence transcriptional activity of this gene, are proposed to play a role in MS susceptibility and its development. In the present study, the possible association of MMP-9 polymorphisms in Iranian MS patients is studied.

    Methods: Association of MMP-9 mentioned gene polymorphisms with MS susceptibility was evaluated in unrelated Iranian subjects referred to Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran during 2014 to 2017. 

    Results: -1562 T allele of MMP-9 was associated with increased MS risk. However, we found no overall significant effect of −90 (CA)n repeat on MS susceptibility.

    Conclusion: For as much as MMP-9 molecule is a potential target for MS therapy, to determine whether any of MMP-9 polymorphisms influence MS susceptibility in Iranian MS patients or not, concerning the significant influence of T allele on MS susceptibility and the non-significant association regarding CA repeats, further research is needed before proposing any definite conclusion.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 146 | views: 185 | pages: 1704-1713

    Background: Autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL), one of the global public health concerns, is marked by a high degree of genetic heterogeneity. The role of GJB2, as the most common cause of ARNSHL, is only <20% in the Iranian population. Here, we aimed to determine the relative contribution of several apparently most common loci in a cohort of ARNSHL Iranian families that were negative for the GJB2 mutations.

    Methods: Totally, 80 Iranian ARNSHL families with 3 or more affected individuals from Isfahan and Hamedan provinces, Iran were enrolled in 2017. After excluding mutations in the GJB2 gene via Sanger sequencing, 60 negative samples (30 families from each province) were analyzed using homozygosity mapping for 10 ARNSHL loci.

    Results: Fourteen families were found to be linked to five different known loci, including DFNB4 (5 families), DFNB2 (3 families), DFNB7/11 (1 family), DFNB9 (2 families) and DFNB3 (3 families).

    Conclusion: Despite the high heterogeneity of ARNSHL, the genetic causes were determined in 23.5% of the studied families using homozygosity mapping. This data gives an overview of the ARNSHL etiology in the center and west of Iran, used to establish a diagnostic gene panel including most common loci for hearing loss diagnostics.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 134 | views: 225 | pages: 1714-1722

    Background: We aimed to investigate the trend of childhood obesity in Tehranian population during a median follow-up of 10 years.

    Methods: Within a prospective cohort study, using data collected from Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), 1406 participants, aged 3-11 yr were selected and monitored in 4 phases: phase I (1999-2001), phase II (2002–2005), phase III (2006–2008) and phase IV (2009–2011).

    Results: Total prevalence of obesity in children increased from 5.5% to 9.4% from phase I to IV. Performing GEE (Generalized Estimating Equation) analysis, relative risk of obesity was calculated, comparing each phase to its previous phase: phase II in reference to phase I (RR=1.06, CI=1.04-1.08), phase III in reference to phase II (RR=1.01, CI=1.00-1.03) and phase IV in reference to phase III (RR=0.96, CI=0.94-0.98). Between group difference was significant in all subgroups (age, gender, parental obesity) except parental education. Test of interaction for effect of time was insignificant in all subgroups except for the age group. For children younger than 7 yr old at phase I, trend of obesity throughout the study was higher compared to those with 7 yr of age and older at phase I.

    Conclusion: During a decade of follow-up, trend of obesity was rising in this Tehranian children in both genders, especially in younger children. Any preventive interventions for stopping this trend should focus on early stages of childhood.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 104 | views: 169 | pages: 1723-1731

    Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), is the fatal form of gynecological cancer. Almost 70% of ovarian cancer patients are detected at an advanced stage (III-IV) with metastases. Epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical process associated with metastasis. This study investigated the expression levels of AXL, GAS6, Claudin-1, and Cofilin-1, as genes involved in EMT in relation to clinicopathologic features in ovarian cancer patients.

    Methods: In this descriptive study, 78 ovarian epithelial cancer patients were enrolled. Samples were provided by the Iran National Tumor Bank, founded by the Cancer Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2017. The expression levels of AXL, GAS6, Claudin-1, and Cofilin-1 genes were investigated in a fresh, frozen tumor sample and normal adjacent tissue by real-time PCR (RT-PCR).

    Results: Findings showed a significant relationship between the overexpression of AXL and TNM staging (P=0.03). The expression level of GAS6 decreased in more advanced stages (P=0.01). There is a negative relationship between Cofilin-1 expression level and TNM staging (P=0.002). Claudin-1 expression level was higher in low stages compared with that in high stages (P=0.01). There was no relationship between gene expression levels of target genes with size and grade of the tumor.

    Conclusion: Given the importance of these genes in EMT, alteration in their expression pattern can contribute to the progression of the disease and distant metastasis of cancer cells. Additionally, knowing the alteration pattern of these genes expression can help to better understanding and prediction of the prognosis of EOC.


Case Report(s)

Letter to the Editor