Review Article

Burden of Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile Infection among Patients in Western Asia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis


Background: Clostridium difficile is the most common causes of hospital-acquired diarrhea affecting particularly hospitalized patients globally. This organism has re-emerged in recent years with significant morbidity and mortality. The present study aimed to estimate the burden of C. difficile infection (CDI) and to acquire information on the overall rates of community- and hospital-acquired CDI in western Asia.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed to identify articles published from the eight Persian Gulf countries in western Asia including Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates in the electronic databases within Jan of 2000 to Dec of 2017. Then, 20 publications which met our inclusion criteria were selected for data extraction and analysis by Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software.

Results: Twenty studies reported the prevalence of toxigenic strains of C. difficile among patients from Persian Gulf countries, of these the pooled prevalence of CDI was 9% (95% CI: 6.5%-12.5%). Totally, 8 studies showed the prevalence of hospital-acquired CDI, from those studies the prevalence of CDI was estimated 8.4% (95% CI: 4.9%-14.1%). Moreover, 7 studies reported the prevalence of community-acquired CDI, from those studies the prevalence of CDI was estimated 1.8% (95% CI: 1.2%-2.9%).

Conclusion: The prevalence of CDI in western Asia is lower than southern and eastern region. Moreover, the lower prevalence of community-acquired CDI compared to hospital-acquired CDI, indicate that the source of infection in western Asia is more likely in the hospitals.



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IssueVol 48 No 9 (2019) QRcode
SectionReview Article(s)
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) Western Asia Infection control Meta-analysis

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How to Cite
MALEKZADEGAN Y, HALAJI M, HASANNEJAD-BIBALAN M, JALALIFAR S, FATHI J, EBRAHIM-SARAIE HS. Burden of Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile Infection among Patients in Western Asia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Iran J Public Health. 2019;48(9):1589-1599.