Iranian Journal of Public Health has been continuously published since 1971, in two languages (English and Persian). From 2001 issue, the Journal is published only in English language.

Iran J Public Health is published by Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). It is the official Publication of the Iranian Public Health Association and the School of Public Health, TUMS, Iran.

Current Issue

Vol 50 No 12 (2021)

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 63 | views: 135 | pages: 2361-2373

    Background: The facemasks use has been discussed to prevent respiratory disease due airborne contamination. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review about the face masks use to avoid airborne contamination during COVID-19 pandemic and related conditions, registered (PROSPERO-CRD42020198347) and performed according PRISMA.

    Methods: PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases were used to collect data. Observational studies, published in 2020, and English language, were included. Two reviewers independently identified records through database search and reference screening and disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer. Six studies were included.

    Results: The works investigated about the use of masks (different types) to prevent droplets dissemination with virus or bacterial suspension and decrease COVID-19 transmission routes, comfort, or temperature. The studies have moderate to critical risk of bias and the level of evidence is III-2.

    Conclusion: It is recommended facemask use to prevent droplets from escaping airborne and infecting other people, although there are different percentages of protection and can be possible a discomfort related the use. Further clinical trials to the effectiveness of face mask to avoid airborne contamination during the COVID-19 pandemic and the factors interfering with their effectiveness should be conducted.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 37 | views: 49 | pages: 2374-2383

    Background: Coronaviruses caused three pandemics and impact public health globally in the 21st century. However, limited data were for the evaluation of the trend of coronavirus researches. We aimed to analyze quantitatively, qualitatively, and visually evaluate global scientific publications on coronavirus by using bibliometric analysis.

    Methods: Coronavirus-related research from 1990-2019 was retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection database (WoS). Microsoft Excel and VOS viewer software were used to assess the characteristics of publications.

    Results: Overall, 9,553 publications on coronavirus were retrieved on 12 Mar 2020. The United States took a leading position in coronavirus-related research and accounted for more than one-thirds (36.7%) of all publications. The most productive journal in this field was Journal of Virology (1,056, 11.1%), and the most productive institution was University of Hong Kong (394, 4.1%). The main hot topics in coronavirus field were virus infection and protein. Active collaborations between countries were observed.

    Conclusion: Over the past three decades, coronavirus research has gradually increased due to two global outbreaks. Through this global bibliometric evaluation, some relevant evidence could be provided. Corresponding to the impact of novel coronavirus (COVID-19), a large number of articles can be expected to appear in the next few years, and international cooperation should be strengthened to solve the problem.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 23 | views: 38 | pages: 2384-2396

    Background: Family history may inform individuals that they are at risk of gastric cancer (GC). However, it is too extensive to conduct intensive screening strategies for all individuals with family history of GC instead of average-risk screening. To establish more precise prevention strategies, accurate risk estimates are necessary for individuals with family history of GC.

    Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane for all relevant studies from their inception to May 21, 2020, for cohort and case-control studies investigating the association between family history of GC and its risk. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled from studies using random-effects or fixed effects.

    Results: The RR of GC was 2.08 (95% CI=1.86-2.34) in individuals with family history of GC according to twenty-nine case-control studies and 1.83 (95%CI=1.67-2.01) from six cohort studies. The increased risk was higher in individuals with sibling history of GC than those with parental history of GC (RR=3.18, 95% CI=2.12-4.79 vs. RR=1.66, 95% CI=1.46-1.89, P=0.021). For individuals with 2 or more first-degree relatives (FDRs) with GC, the RR was 2.81(95% CI=1.89-3.99). Subjects with both family history and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection confer a higher risk of GC (RR = 4.03, 95%CI=2.46-6.59).

    Conclusion: The RR of GC among FDRs is lower than in previous studies. However, the risk of GC is markedly increased in individuals having a sibling with GC, more than 2 FDRs with GC. Intensified screening and eradication therapy for H. pylori could be considered for these individuals.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 80 | views: 48 | pages: 2397-2410

    Background: Exercise is believed to play an important role in maintaining functionality in patients with HIV and it is thought that researchers are increasingly interested in this field. We aimed to shed light on the historical development of research on HIV and exercise by utilizing visual mapping method.

    Methods: Overall, 1051 articles retrieved from Web of Science (WoS) core database were analyzed according to the publication year and language, number of issues, citation, country collaborations, co-citation networks and concept–topic trends by using CiteSpace software.

    Results: The United States played a key role in country collaborations, and had the highest citation burst. The most cited studies were meta-analysis studies. The studies gathered mainly around the clusters named “physical activity” and “metabolic abnormalities” meanwhile, the recent topics of research were heart failure, metabolism, comorbidity, Ethiopia, muscle, cardiovascular event and drug user.

    Conclusion: The reason why USA was found to be one of the key actors in the network is supposed to be the financial resources it can allocate for the studies conducted. It appears that the majority of the studies in the field dwell upon the impact of exercise on the physical parameters in HIV patients, whereas there are only a limited number of studies focusing on the impact of exercise on HIV-induced psychological and cognitive problems. Recent studies on neurocognitive impairment, on the other hand, are predictive of possible future popularity of such topics among researchers.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 38 | views: 50 | pages: 2411-2426

    Background: Acupuncture and acupuncture-related therapies are effective for Alzheimer's disease (AD), therefore, we aimed to compare and rank the interventions that mainly focus on acupuncture-related therapies in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate AD.

    Methods: We used network meta-analysis to evaluate the direct and indirect evidence shown in randomized controlled trials of AD. The data were analyzed using RavMan manager, Stata, and WinBUGS software after two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included studies.

    Results: We analyzed a total of 36 eligible studies, including 2712 patients, involving 14 types of acupuncture-related therapies and comprehensive therapies. For Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), acupuncture (ACU) combined with cognitive and memory training (Training) was more effective than ACU, ACU+Chinese herb (CH), ACU+Donepezil (DON), CH, DON, DON+Nimodipine (NIM), Music therapy (Music), NIM, Placebo, and Training (P<0.05), while ACU+CH was batter than CH (P<0.05), and ACU+DON+NIM was better than DON+NIM (P<0.05). For Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive section (ADAS-cog), ACU was more effective than DON and placebo (P<0.05). For Activities of Daily Living (ADL), ACU+DON was better than CH, DON, NIM, and Placebo (P<0.05). For the clinical effectiveness rate, ACU, ACU+CH, ACU+CH+DON, ACU+CH+DON+NIM, ACU+DON, CH, NIM were all more effective than DON+NIM (P<0.05), while ACU and ACU+CH were better than DON (P<0.05). The comprehensive ranking results show that ACU+training and ACU have the highest ranking probability.

    Conclusion: ACU+Training and ACU may be the best therapies to improve the cognitive function of patients with mild to moderate AD, while the combination of acupuncture-related therapies and other therapies has a higher overall benefit.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 22 | views: 48 | pages: 2427-2438

    Background: Progressive stress levels, aging and less care on mental health among adults lead to a decline in neurophysiological functioning and diminish the performance of working memory. Regular practice of meditation through Heartfulness will enhance mental health and thereby considerably reduce the risks of Alzheimer’s disease.

    Methods: This review article was carried out from the literature available on databases such as PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science and Research Gate until May 2020. A qualitative analysis of the impact of Heartfulness meditation on people with chronic insomnia, students of different age groups, Heartfulness meditation practitioners and caregivers were summarized.

    Results: From the survey results of selected 10 articles, it has been observed that the people who were practicing meditation through Heartfulness gain emotional wellness, joy, sound sleep pattern and reduction of stress, tension and anger. Moreover, the level of brain waves of the practitioners, especially alpha and delta activities in the brain were increased and there was a tremendous change in neuroplasticity among the practitioners.

    Conclusion: Regular practice of meditation through Heartfulness improves the cognitive ability of the practitioners, with improved neurophysiological functions and suppresses the risks of Alzheimer’s diseases.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 14 | views: 40 | pages: 2439-2450

    Background: Scarce data exists about the effect of peer support on individuals with overweight or obesity. This study aimed to conduct a meta-analysis regarding the effect of peer support on weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, quality of life, social support and depressive symptoms in individuals with overweight and obesity.

    Methods: PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL were searched for relevant studies from their inceptions to 1 Mar 2020, and 14 randomized controlled trials (RCTS) were included. Data were pooled with Review Manager 5.3.

    Results: Significantly small improvement in weight (-0.78 kg) was found in individuals who received peer support than those who received usual care (MD= -0.78 kg, 95% CI-1.33 to -0.22, P=0.02). And peer support appeared to be associated with significant decrease in BMI levels (MD= -0.16 kg/m2, 95% CI -0.32 to -0.01, P=0.04). However, there was no statistically significant improvement in the levels of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, quality of life, social support and depressive symptoms after peer support.

    Conclusion: Peer support appears to be associated with decreased weight and BMI levels in individuals with overweight and obesity. However, additional research is warranted due to insufficient evidence for the effects of peer support on the other health indicators.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 21 | views: 55 | pages: 2451-2460

    Background: Population aging refers to the increase in number and percentage of older population aged 60 yr and above, and at the same time, decreasing in number and percentage of the young population aged 15 yr old and below. Starting in developed countries, population aging has now become a distinctive demographic phenomenon in developing countries. Nowadays developing countries have become the home to the largest proportion of older people in the world. This paper aimed to analyze the impact of population aging in Malaysia.

    Methods: We employed a secondary data analysis related to the impact of population aging in Malaysia. In analyzing the data, the paper detailed, segmented, coded and, formulated the text into themes through a thematic approach. The themes that emerged from the data were family changes, migration of youth, support and care, health problems, financial security as well as housing problems. These emerged themes mapped the shared patterns of the impacts of the population aging.

    Results: With the increasing of the older population in Malaysia, there are various impacts of population aging emerged, particularly in terms of family changes, youth migration to cities, support and care, health, financial security and housing. The discussion in this article is revolved around these impacts.

    Conclusion: The growth of older people and the impact emerging from it has certain policy implications for the government of the country. Thus, the government needs to prepare for adequate policies and resources for future older people.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 14 | views: 36 | pages: 2461-2472

    Background: The tumor suppressor genes play a critical role in cellular and molecular mechanisms such as cell cycle processes, cell differentiation and apoptosis. Aberrant DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes and subsequent gene expression changes have shown to be involved in the initiation and progression of various malignancies including thyroid malignancies. In this review, we investigated what is known about the impact of promoter hypermethylation on the key tumor suppressor genes known to be involved in cell growth and/or apoptosis of thyroid cancer.

    Methods: The most important databases were searched for research articles until June 2020 to identify reported tumor suppressor genes that are modulated by methylation modulation changes in thyroid carcinoma. Following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 26 studies were reviewed using the full text to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

    Results: The tumor suppressor genes reviewed here are suggestive biomarkers and potential targetable drugs. Inactivation of RASSF1A, DAPK1, SLCFA8, and TSHR through aberrant epigenetic methylation could activate BRAF/MEK/ERK kinase pathways with potential clinical implications in thyroid cancer patients. RARβ2 and RUNX3 could suppress cell cycle and induce apoptosis in malignant cells. TIMP3 and PTEN could prevent angiogenesis and invasion through PIP3 pathway and arrest VEFG activity.

    Conclusion: The methylation status of key genes in various types of thyroid malignancies could be used in early diagnosis as well as differentiation of malignant and benign thyroid. This is valuable in drug repurposing and discovering alternative treatments or preventions in thyroid cancer.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 20 | views: 48 | pages: 2473-2485

    Background: This study aimed to assess factors affecting panic buying and strategies to deal with them during COVID-19 with a scoping review.

    Method: The review was performed based on Arksey and O’Malley. PubMed, Embase, Scopus, ProQuest, and Science Direct databases were selected to search. All English language full-text articles from Jan 2020 to May 2021 were included. Initially, the titles and abstracts of the retrieved articles were read and screening was accomplished based on the research question. After that, the full text of eligible studies was examined. A third reviewer was resolved disagreements at any stage by a consensus meeting. A self-assessment form was designed for data extraction. The causes of panic buying were assessed as a descriptive study.

    Results: The search process returned 23 articles after deletion for complete data extraction and analysis. Through thematic analysis, the factors influencing panic buying were divided into six categories including cognitive, emotional, behavioral, social, and economic factors as well as government action, and finally, the recommended strategies were categorized in two categories included psychosocial and economic.

    Conclusion: A holistic view of panic buying’s causes allows planners and decision-makers to design categorized strategies beyond the suggested strategies. Increasing customer awareness and monitoring the flow of information through social media and mass media, psychotherapy, counseling, and economic strategies are considered by planners to combat panic buying.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 16 | views: 38 | pages: 2486-2494

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) with the length of approximately 26-30 nucleotides are a distinct class of small non-coding RNAs that mainly expressed in the animal gonads. Other small RNAs originate from double stranded precursors but piRNAs derive from long single-stranded primary transcripts, which expressed from distinct genomic regions. piRNAs are involved in silencing of mobile elements named transposons and their main role is germline maintenance. Recent studies have opened new insights on biological and clinical significance of piRNAs in various diseases. Abnormal expression of piRNAs is a remarkable feature in many diseases especially human cancers, which emphasize on their important biological role in disease progression. Furthermore, they can be served as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for tumor diagnostics and treatment. In this review, we explained piRNAs characteristics, biogenesis process and functions, discuss new findings about involvement of these elements in various disease and their potential to be used as diagnostic biomarkers.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 8 | views: 37 | pages: 2495-2508

    Background: Data management related to eye injuries is vital in improving care process, improving treatment and implementing preventive programs. Implementation of a registry to manage data is an integral part of this process. This systematic review aimed to identify processes related to eye injury registries.

    Methods: Databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Scopus were used in searching for articles from 2010 to Oct 2020 using the keywords “eye injuries” and” registry”. The identified processes related to eye injuries registry such as case finding, data collection, abstracting, reporting, follow-up and data quality control are presented in this review.

    Results: Of 1493 articles retrieved, 30 articles were selected for this study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Majority of these studies were conducted in the United States. All registries had case finding and the most common resources for case finding included medical documents, reports and screening results. Moreover, majority of registries collected data electronically. However, few registries used data quality attributes to improve the data collected.

    Conclusion: Eye injury registry plays an important role in the management of eye injury data and as a result, better management of these data will be established. Taking into consideration that the quality of collected data has a vital role in adopting prevention strategies, it is essential to use high-quality data and quality control methods in planning and designing eye injury registries.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 18 | views: 38 | pages: 2509-2516

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a rapid shift in student education style from face-to-face to electronic learning. Since the education satisfaction index is considered as a measure of the quality of educational services, therefore, this study aimed to assess E-Learning Satisfaction (ELS) in medical and non-medical students during COVID-19 pandemic.

    Methods: Articles that had been published from 22 Dec 2019 to 4 Jan 2021 were identified through searching databases including PubMed, Scopus, Elsevier, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Iranian Scientific Information Database (SID), Health.barakatkns, IranDoc, Civilica and MagIran using the following keywords: “Distance learning”, “Virtual learning”, “E-Learning”, “Satisfaction”, “COVID 19”. We systematically reviewed all studies that reported ELS. In this study, meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled ELS.

    Results: Overall, 184 records were identified by the electronic search, of which 24 relevant studies were included in meta-analysis. The pooled ELS in medical, non-medical and overall were 58.1% (50.5%-65.7%), 70.1% (66.8%-73.5%) and 63.8% (58.9%-68.8%) respectively.

    Conclusion: According to our results and lower ELS in medical students in comparison with non-medical students, designing new E-Learning methods for medical students has been suggested.

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 34 | views: 52 | pages: 2517-2525

    Background: We compared the associations of socioeconomic factors with stress and depression among family members living with a dementia patient in urban and rural areas of South Korea.

    Methods: Data were collected from 9,730 (4,560 urban and 5,170 rural) participants in the Korean Community Health Survey from 2014-17. The variable of interest was the presence of a cohabitating dementia patient, and the dependent variables were stress and depression.

    Results: Family members living with a dementia patient in rural areas had a significantly lower socioeconomic status (education, household income, marital status, and employment) than those living in urban areas (p<0.001). In addition, family members living with a dementia patient in rural areas reported statistically significantly less stress and depression than did those in urban areas after adjusting for related factors(rural stress OR=0.87, 95% CI=0.80-0.95; rural depression OR=0.75, 95% CI=0.66-0.85). Female gender and a low family income were associated with stress and depression in both rural and urban areas. Age, educational attainment, number of family members, marital status, and employment status differed slightly between urban and rural areas.

    Conclusion: The socioeconomic factors associated with stress and depression differ slightly in the rural and urban areas of South Korea.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 12 | views: 33 | pages: 2526-2535

    Background: Medical staff working in COVID-19 wards must be isolated and observed for 14 days upon the occurrence of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia (PSH). Such measures could result in great psychological pressure and incur considerable losses in anti-disease resources.

    Methods: In this study, the psychological conditions of medical staff were assessed over a period of 7 days in COVID-19 isolation wards of the People’s Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China and 7 days after leaving the wards by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). The relevant factors of PSH were analyzed by t- and rank sum tests.

    Results: A total of 10 females with an average body temperature of 37.36 ± 0.07 ℃ were included in the PSH group. Another 103 females and 53 males with an average body temperature of 36.66 ± 0.21 ℃ were included in the control group. The PSQI, GAD-7, PHQ-9, IES-R, and PCL-C scores of the PSH group were higher than those of the control group. Binary regression analysis indicated that the odds ratios of the PSQI and GAD-7 scores were 12.98 and 3.81, respectively (P < 0.05). After positive intervention, the body temperature and psychological scale scores of both groups returned to normal ranges.

    Conclusion: Working in COVID-19 wards could cause susceptible medical staff to suffer from PSH. Female sex, somnipathy, and GAD are independent risk factors of PSH.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 13 | views: 37 | pages: 2536-2545

    Background: To evaluate the inhibitory effect of adalimumab on diabetic nephropathyDN) through animal models.

    Methods: We carried out the study in Weifang People’s Hospital, Weifang 261041, China in December 2020. Streptozotocin was used to induce DN in model animal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The DN animal model was given treatment with adalimumab, and the inhibitory effect of adalimumab on the development process of DN was evaluated by detecting changes in blood glucose and urinary albumin levels. Meanwhile, the content of UN, Cr and CysC of the blood in different experimental groups was tested by weighing the ratio of kidney and performing ELISA to evaluate the protective effect of adalimumab on kidney of DN animal model. In addition, the changes in the transcription and translation levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and its downstream regulatory factors MCP-1 and NF-kB in kidney of different experimental groups were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot tests to further reveal the molecular mechanism of adalimumab inhibiting the diabetic nephropathy.

    Results: adalimumab could significantly downregulate blood glucose and urinary albumin levels (P <0.05). The renal body weight ratio and the contents of UN, Cr and Cysc in blood in the adalimumab group were significantly lower than those in the placebo group (P <0.05). Meanwhile, adalimumab could significantly downregulate the expression of these molecules (P <0.05).

    Conclusion: adalimumab could exert its therapeutic effect on diabetic nephropathy through its specific targeting TNF-α signaling pathways.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 11 | views: 25 | pages: 2546-2554

    Background: We aimed to determine the risk factors associated with cognitive performance in older adults in China.

    Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted in a group of 1,898 adults aged 60 yr and over in China, Cognitive score was determined by a modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICSM). The dietary intake of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) from cereal source foods (CSF) were calculated by using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and Chinese Food Composition Tables. Descriptive statistics and multivariate mixed regression models were utilized to explore the association between the intake of these elements and cognitive function.

    Results: The mean dietary intakes of Fe, Zn and Cu from CSF were 12.01, 6.90 and 1.30 mg/d respectively. Compared with participants in the high-cognitive group, those in the low-cognitive group had lower total dietary intakes of Fe, Zn and Cu. However, with respect to ratios of CSF-Zn, CSF-Fe and CSF-Cu to their respective total values, participants in the low-cognitive group had significantly higher ratios than those in the high-cognitive group. The results of multivariate mixed regression model revealed that although total dietary Zn intake was positively linked with cognitive function, the CSF-Zn/Zn ratio was negatively associated with cognitive performance.

    Conclusion: Excessive intake of Zn from a specific food source, such as CSF, was found to be negatively associated with cognitive status. Avoiding over-intake of Zn from CSF foods and diversifying intake of Zn from different food sources seemed to protect individuals from cognitive decline.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 12 | views: 35 | pages: 2555-2559

    Background: To analyze the complications and outcome of mediastinal uterine pregnancy, and put forward targeted prevention and treatment measures.

    Methods: A total of 248 pregnant women with mediastinal uterus treated were enrolled from Jan 2015 to Dec 2018 in the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, China. The data, including complications of pregnancy, gestational weeks, mode of delivery, postpartum hemorrhage, placental condition and perinatal prognosis, were collected and analyzed.

    Results: There were 12 cases with abnormal fetal position in the previous cesarean section. The total number of cases with abnormal fetal position was 99(49.75%). For women with abnormal fetal position during mediastinal uterine pregnancy, there was a significant increase in the incidence of placental abruption (P<0.05). The average gestational age at termination of pregnancy was 37+5weeks. There were 55 cases (22.18%) of premature and 49 cases (19.75%) of premature rupture of membranes, including 29 cases of abnormal fetal position and premature rupture of membranes, mediastinal uterus preterm birth, premature rupture of membranes (P<0.05). There were 13 cases (5.24%) of postpartum hemorrhage, natural birth without neonatal asphyxia, five cases (2.02%) of neonatal asphyxia, preterm birth, and 51 cases (20.56%) of placental adhesion. Of these, 37 cases were cesarean, 13 were spontaneous production, and 71 were fetal umbilical cord winding.

    Conclusion: The pregnancy induced spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, premature rupture of membranes and abnormal fetal position in mediastinal uterus are significantly higher than normal pregnancy. The complications during delivery are significantly higher than in normal pregnant women.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 5 | views: 27 | pages: 2560-2566

    Background: We aimed to explore the effect of Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) circulation nursing on the prevention of aneurysm after hemodialysis.

    Methods: A total of 139 hemodialysis patients from Oct 2018 to Jan 2020 in Nephrology Department of the First People’s Hospital of Lianyungang, China were enrolled. They were randomly divided into control group and PCDA group, including 58 patients in control group and 81 patients in PCDA group. Patients' satisfaction, blood flow in arteriovenous internal fistula and the incidence of post-dialysis vascular-related complications were statistically investigated in the two groups.

    Results: The satisfaction of patients in PDCA group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.001). In addition, when there was no statistical difference in blood flow between the two groups, the probability of complications such as internal fistula obstruction, thrombosis, infection, secondary puncture and aneurysm was lower in patients in the PDCA group, none of which occurred aneurysm.

    Conclusion: PDCA circulation nursing can effectively improve the quality of care and medical effect of hemodialysis patients with internal arteriovenous fistula, improve patient satisfaction and reduce the incidence of complications.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 13 | views: 26 | pages: 2567-2575

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the predictive value of the 'Timed Up and Go' test (TUGT) for identifying fall risk in community-dwelling elderly.

    Methods: From Aug 2016 to Feb 2017, cluster sampling was conducted among residents aged over 60 from 15 communities in Songjiang district, Shanghai. Face-to-face questionnaire interviews and TUGT measures were conducted to collect data.

    Results: 6,014 participants were enrolled, with an average age 72.7±7.0 years. 637 (10.6%) elderly people had a fall experience in the past year. TUGT for the non-fall group, one-fall group and recurrent-fall group was 9.02±4.39, 10.00±5.26 and 10.78±4.51 seconds respectively (P<0.001). ROC analysis showed that the TUGT cut-off point for the elderly was 12.5 seconds and AUC was 0.573 for any-fall group and 0.613 for recurrent-fall group respectively. After adjusting for age and gender, the predictive value was not high for any-fall group (AUC=0.614) and recurrent-fall group (AUC=0.648). The TUGT cut-off point for the elderly aged below 65, 65-74, 75-84 and 85 and above was 13.52s, 12.51s, 12.51s, 12.00s, respectively. After adjustment of the confounding factors, the OR values for the risk of fall for the elderly men and women who completed TUGT longer than the cut-off point was 2.404 and 2.075 times higher than those who completed TUGT shorter than the cut-off point, respectively.

    Conclusion: TUGT with the cut-off score of 12.5s has limited capability in predicting fall risk in community-dwelling elderly.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 7 | views: 24 | pages: 2576-2583

    Background: To study the molecular mechanism of cisplatin chemotherapy resistance in colorectal cancer cells and to explore the effect of miRNA in regulating the expression of glucose transporter 3 (SLC2A3) and the proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells.

    Methods: All samples were obtained from the People’s Hospital of Wuhai, Wuhai, China between June 2019 and June 2020. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was carried out to check the expression of miR-103a in these cell lines. Western blotting and Luciferase reporter gene detection confirmed the regulation of the miR-103a/SLC2A3 axis. Western blotting detected the activation of SLC2A3, caspased-9 and -3.

    Results: The expression of SLC2A3 protein in colon cancer cell lines was significantly higher than that of normal colon cancer cells, while the expression of SLC2A3 miRNA showed no significant difference (P<0.05). Then, through clone formation analysis, SLC2A3 was closely related to the proliferation of human colon cancer cells. Functional recovery experiments showed that increasing the expression of miR-103a could reverse the abnormal proliferation caused by overexpression of SLC2A3.

    Conclusion: Overall, miR-103a can inhibit the proliferation of human colon cancer cells by targeting SLC2A3, and this result will provide a potential target for the treatment of colon cancer.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 18 | views: 29 | pages: 2584-2592

    Background: We aimed to determine the nutrient intake of Crohn’s patients and to expose its relationship with Crohn’s Activity Index (CDAI), Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and Body Mass Index (BMI).

    Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on patients enrolled in the Gastroenterology Polyclinic of a University Medical Faculty Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey in 2017. Two groups were included in this study: Crohn’s Group (n = 100) and Control (n = 89). Crohn’s Disease Activity Index was used to detect disease activity. Malnutrition risk was determined by the SGA and daily energy and nutrient intakes were calculated.

    Results: There was a significant relationship between SGA and both CDAI and BMI (P<0.001, P=0.008, respectively). Daily energy, carbohydrate, monosaccharide, starch, sucrose, fructose, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, fiber, vitamin E and C, thiamine, niacin, pyridoxine, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Zn intakes were significantly lower in Crohn’s Group than in Control Group. While more than 50% of the patients did not consume enough, B6, C, thiamine, niacin, folic acid, Mg, Ca and fiber, intakes of vitamin E, riboflavin, Fe, P, and Zn were adequate. Energy and nutrient  (vitamin E, thiamine, vitamin B6, mono and poly unsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, Mg, Ca, P, Zn, n-3 fatty acids and starch) intakes were negatively correlated with CDAI, but there was no relationship between these intakes and SGA.

    Conclusion: There was a relationship between CDAI, SGD and BMI used to determine nutritional status in patients with Crohn’s.

Case Report(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 48 | views: 32 | pages: 2593-2598

    Cardiomyopathies are heterogeneous and critical disorders of cardiovascular diseases. One of the most common inherited cardiomyopathies is DCM (dilated cardiomyopathy). Genetic disorders are found in approximately 50% of DCM cases. We aimed to describe a case of DCM in a 42-year-old woman in 2018 at Farhud Genetic Clinic, Tehran, Iran. To detect genetic involvement, Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed and the data were evaluated carefully. Variations in different genes coding crucial proteins in cardiac muscle structure (i.e. Titin, Obscurin, MYH6, and LAMA4) and proteins involved in channels (i.e. CAVNA1C, SCN1B and SCN5A) were detected by whole-exome sequencing (WES). In agreement with the clinical manifestations and molecular analysis, DCM was confirmed. This study provides further evidence on the diagnostic role of NGS in borderline DCM cases. It also shows the recently developed high throughput sequencing can provide clinicians with this approach to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of such hard-to-diagnose disorders. Furthermore, this study highlights the basis of personalized medicine, namely detection of high-risk individuals by revealing some genetic variants as predictive risk factors, and initial prevention of DCM.

Letter to the Editor

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