Vol 49 No Supple 1 (2020)

Supplementary Issue on "COVID-19"

Published: 2020-04-28

Editorial

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 423 | views: 610 | pages: 4-11

    Coronavirus (COVID-19) is the newest dangerous contagious disease in the world, emerged at the end of 2019 and the beginning of 2020. World Health Organization at the daily level publishes numbers of infected patients as well as several dead people around the world and in every region particularly. However, public health and criminal law are inevitably linked. National criminal laws in Europe mainly prescribe criminal offences for transmitting a dangerous contagious disease. Numerous states have closed their borders, quarantining their nationals that entering in the state. Strangers cannot enter in European Union. However, many do not abide by the restrictions, and people who have become ill with coronavirus walking the streets and committing a criminal offence. The authors in the work, in the first place, explain the connection between public health and criminal law and then elaborate criminal jurisdictions in Europe.

     

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 145 | views: 214 | pages: 12-17

    At present, new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is circulating worldwide. The pathogen of this coronavirus pneumonia is named SARS-CoV-2. The virus has a long incubation period and is highly contagious. There is currently no specific targeted drug treatment. The focus of anti-epidemic work should be more on prevention and control while cutting off the virus transmission route while treating infected patients, and protecting healthy people. In order to protect the safety and health of the Chinese citizens and to maintain the safety of world public health, the Chinese government and people have made unprecedented efforts to control the epidemic. Many people in the international community have joined in limiting the spread of COVID-19. This article combines the development of COVID-19 epidemic situation in Wuhan, the relevant prevention and control measures of the Wuhan government and local health authorities to share Wuhan’s experience on control the cluster epidemic and provide new suggestions and ideas for epidemic prevention and control.

     

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 795 | views: 1085 | pages: 18-29

    COVID-19 is considered as the third human coronavirus and has a high potential for transmission. Fast public health interventions through antibodies, anti-virals or novel vaccine strategies to control the virus and disease transmission have been extremely followed. SARS-CoV-2 shares about 79% genomic similarity with SARS-CoV and approximately 50% with MERS-CoV. Based on these similarities, prior knowledge in treating SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV can be used as the basis of majority of the alternatives for controlling SARS-CoV-2. Immunotherapy is an effective strategy for clinical treatment of infectious diseases such as SARS-CoV-2. Passive antibody therapy, which decreases the virus replication and disease severity, is assessed as an effective therapeutic approach to control SARS-CoV-2 epidemics. The close similarity between SARS-CoV-2 genome with the SARS-CoV genome caused both coronaviruses to bind to the same angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors that found in the human lung. There are several strategies to develop SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, which the majority of them are based on those developed previously for SARS-CoV. The interaction between the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 on the host cell surface leads to the initiation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. S protein, which is the main inducer of neutralizing antibodies, has been targeted by most of these strategies. Vaccines that induce an immune response against the S protein to inhibit its binding with the host ACE2 receptor, can be considered as effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we aimed to review frontier therapeutics and vaccination strategies for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19).

     

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 276 | views: 420 | pages: 30-37

    Since the 1970 the replication and pathogenesis mechanism of different coronaviruses have been studded.. In 2002-2003, SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus) in China emerged which resulted in 8098 cases and 774 deaths. About 10 years later in 2012, the MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus) spread in Middle Eastern countries and leads to infection in 2465 cases. In Dec 2019, another acute respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus named SARS-2 emerged in Wuhan, China. The virus is assumed to be mainly transmitted by respiratory droplets. Travels and communications leads to high prevalence of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) in the world, and currently in Iran. The current review was conducted to compare the virus structure, genome organization, virus life cycle, pathogenesis and prediction the future of COVID-19.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 395 | views: 839 | pages: 38-47

    Background: Considering that the obstetricians and pediatricians need to comprehensive information about the obstetric and neonatal effect of COVID-19, this review study was conducted to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on obstetrics and neonatal outcomes.

    Methods: In this systematic review the international search databases following PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest and Embase and Google scholar were searched. All articles were reviewed by two independent researchers until 10 April 2020. After quality assessment of included studies the finding reported in 2 sections obstetrics and neonatal outcomes.

    Results: The sixteen studies with a sample size of 123 pregnant women with a definitive diagnosis of COVID-19 and their neonates were evaluated. The range of gestational age was 25-40 weeks. There was no death associated with COVID-19 in pregnant women. The obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 include decreased fetal movement, intrauterine fetal distress, anemia, PROM, preterm labor, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) and etc. The most common delivery mode in women affect with COVID-19 was cesarean section. Expect for one case with MODS, in the majority of the studies reviewed, no severe morbidity or mortality occurred. The neonatal outcomes were stillbirth, prematurity, asphyxia, fetal distress, low birth weight, small for gestational age, large for gestational age, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation and neonatal death. In addition, five neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 were positive for SARS-CoV-2. However, the studies report these outcomes but the exact causes of theme are not known.

    Conclusion: In this systematic review, we summarize the diverse results of studies about the obstetrics and neonatal outcomes following COVID-19. This infection may cause negative outcomes in both mothers and neonates. However, there were evidence about neonate infected with COVID-19, but there is controversial information about the vertical transmission of COVID-19.

     

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 162 | views: 284 | pages: 48-56

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 virus is the causative agent of COVID-19 disease. It is essential to understand the epidemiological characteristics of the first few cases in each country. This study aimed to describe the geographical distribution, and temporal appearance of the first few hundred cases in Colombia.

    Methods: This observational study was conducted to review the literature and key documentary information from public health institutions, websites and news reports were examined.

    Results: The first few 100 cases for COVID-19 were confirmed in Colombia. According to sex, men with 54% predominate, the most affected age group was 20 to 29 yr old (26%), 9% of the cases required hospitalization and no deaths were reported. Most of the confirmed subjects were from the departments of Cundinamarca. To date, most cases are imported (63%), especially from Spain.

    Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic puts in evidence the lack of understanding, prevention and contention power of the different countries around the world is not as good as it could be. Politics must not affect the different proposed measures.

     

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 3642 | views: 28488 | pages: 57-66

    Background: We aimed to compare the accuracy of individuals’ wrist and forehead temperatures with their tympanic temperature under different circumstances.

    Methods: We performed a prospective observational study in a real-life population in Ningbo First Hospital in China. We consecutively recorded individuals’ wrist and forehead temperatures in Celsius (°C) using a noncontact infrared thermometer (NCIT). We also measured individuals’ tympanic temperature using a tympanic thermometer (IRTT) and defined fever as a tympanic temperature of ≥37.3 °C.

    Results: We enrolled 528 participants, including 261 indoor and 267 outdoor participants. We grouped the outdoor participants into four groups according to their means of transportation to the hospital: by foot, by bicycle/electric vehicle, by car, or as a passenger in a car. Under different circumstances, the mean difference in the forehead measurement ranged from -1.72 to -0.56 °C across groups, and that in the wrist measurement ranged from -0.96 to -0.61°C. Both measurements had high fever screening abilities in indoor patients. (Wrist: AUC 0.790; 95% CI: 0.725-0.854, P<0.001; forehead: AUC 0.816; 95% CI: 0.757-0.876, P <0.001). The cut-off value of the wrist measurement for detecting a tympanic temperature of ≥37.3 °C was 36.2 °C, with 86.4% sensitivity and 67.0% specificity, and the best threshold for the forehead measurement was 36.2 °C, with 93.2% sensitivity and 60.0% specificity.

    Conclusion: Wrist measurements are more stable than forehead measurements under different circumstances. Both measurements have favorable fever screening abilities in indoor patients. The cut-off values were both 36.2 °C.

     

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 260 | views: 603 | pages: 67-75

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the COVID-19 as seen worldwide from a public health perspective and evaluate the measures taken across Turkey against the virus and to determine the compliance of people with these measures.

    Methods: WHO's official COVID-19 cases were evaluated up to 27 Mar 2020. Public measures adopted by Turkey in combating the COVID-19 were examined. The compliance of those applying to Family Health Centers (FHC) with these measures was also evaluated.

    Results: Overall, 178 people who applied to the FHC were included in the study. Of the participants, 65.2% were women, and the average age was 56.47±17.27 (Min:18, Max:92). The most frequently used personal protection (96.1%) against the epidemic was liquid soap. According to the participants, avoiding patients (99.7%) and frequent hand washing (97.2%) were stated to as the most effective measures to protect against COVID-19. One of the first and most influential bodies in the fight against COVID-19 in Turkey is the Scientific Committee consisting of academicians. Turkey has taken measures such as closing land borders, stopping all flights, vacationing schools, closing places of worship, and stopping sports events.

    Conclusion: The COVID-19 has affected societies in many areas such as health, education, sports, and trade. Countries should take appropriate and timely measures to combat COVID-19. The public must comply with the precautions taken to fight COVID-19. Besides, all countries should take general precautions for public health against increasing epidemics.

     

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 78 | views: 144 | pages: 76-81

    Background: Beginning in Dec 2019, a novel coronavirus, designated SARS-CoV-2, has caused an international outbreak of respiratory illness termed COVID-19. The workers in the FangCang hospital have to work for more than 8 h and the work is high strength. Furthermore, to protect health and prevent serious cross-infection, they need to wear isolation equipment when working in FangCang hospital. These characteristics increase the risk of cardiac arrest (CA), which seriously endangers the lives of workers.

    Methods: We participated in the rescue of the patient and workers at first-line in FangCang hospital, and summarized the rescue strategies for workers rescuing.

    Results: Workers with CA were rescued in time according our guideline and showed zero dead in FangCang hospital.

    Conclusion: This study establishes the strategy for the CA of workers including the establishment of an in-FangCang resuscitation team, the establishment of a dedicated rescue room, and the formulation of rescue measures and procedures for CA of workers in the FangCang hospital. Therefore, we aimed to provide a strategy for the rescue of workers with CA in the FangCang hospital and share the success in rescuing with the world.

     

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 120 | views: 113 | pages: 82-86

    Background: COVID-19(2019 novel coronavirus disease)has brought tremendous pressure to the prevention and control of the national epidemic due to its concealed onset, strong infectivity and fast transmission speed.

    Methods: In this retrospective study, 226 patients diagnosed with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) in the Chongqing University Three Gorges Hospital were included. The patients' clinical data, including general information, initial symptoms at the onset, time of disease diagnosis, time to treatment in hospital, time of nucleic acid conversion to negative, disease classification, total time of hospitalization were collected. The clinical data of the mild and severe patients were compared.

    Results: Fever, cough, sore throat, poor appetite andfatigue were the main symptoms of the diagnosed patients. The time of diagnosis was significantly shorter in the mild patients (4.96 ± 4.10 days) than severe patients (7.63 ± 9.17 days) (P=0.004). Mild patients had shorter time to treatment in hospital (6.09 ± 4.47 vs. 8.71 ± 9.04 days) and less time of nucleic acid conversion to negative (7.58 ± 2.51 vs. 11.6 ± 4.67 days) compared to the severe patients.

    Conclusion: The above results can be used as a quantitative basis for the “five-early"(early detection, early screening, early diagnosis, early isolation treatment, and early recovery) model. The government, the masses, and the hospitals' joint prevention and optimization of the "five-early" model will provide important scientific reference for further prevention and control of the epidemics.

     

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 110 | views: 159 | pages: 87-91

    Background: To explore the homogenized management method of infection prevention and control in medical resident under COVID-19 epidemic situation.

    Methods: Overall, 268 members in Ningbo Medical Group which was participating in the management of novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China were managed homogeneously in terms of personal cleaning and disinfection of articles, prevention and control of infection in life, training and assessment of relevant infection knowledge in hospitals.

    Results: In the epidemic situation, the homogenization management of infection prevention and control in the resident of medical team is an important measure to block the transmission link.

    Conclusion: 1. Conduct homogenization management on the training of hospital infection knowledge for medical staff. 2. Conduct homogeneous management of effective assessment of training knowledge. 3. Conduct homogenization management from personal cleaning and disinfection, as well as infection prevention and control in daily life.

     

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 643 | views: 864 | pages: 92-100

    Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 is rapidly spreading around the world and became a pandemic disease. For help to better planning of interventions, this study was conducted to forecast the number of daily new infected cases with COVID-19 for next thirty days in Iran.

    Methods: The information of observed Iranian new cases from 19th Feb to 30th Mar 2020 was used to predict the number of patients until 29th Apr. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models were applied for prediction. The data was prepared from daily reports of Iran Ministry of Health and open datasets provided by the JOHN Hopkins. To compare models, dataset was separated into train and test sets. Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) was the comparison criteria.

    Results: Both algorithms forecasted an exponential increase in number of newly infected patients. If the spreading pattern continues the same as before, the number of daily new cases would be 7872 and 9558 by 29th Apr, respectively by ANN and ARIMA. While Model comparison confirmed that ARIMA prediction was more accurate than ANN.

    Conclusion: COVID-19 is contagious disease, and has infected many people in Iran. Our results are an alarm for health policy planners and decision-makers, to make timely decisions, control the disease and provide the equipment needed.

     

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 143 | views: 107 | pages: 101-108

    We report a case of atypical clinical manifestation of pneumonia infected by 2019-novel coronavirus, which is helpful to improve the understanding of the clinical characteristics of pneumonia caused by the virus. At the same time, some suggestions on the discharge criteria and hierarchical management of admission of 2019-nCoV pneumonia are put forward. The results are constructive for effective prevention and control of 2019-nCoV pneumonia and optimizing patient process management in China.

     

Case Report(s)

Letter to the Editor