Vol 45 No 6 (2016)

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 106 | views: 4626 | pages: 715-720

    Background: Owing to increased complexity in the evolution of society, stress has become an important public health problem, and is responsible for more than 30 types of diseases. Most of the research on stress conducted to date has focused on physical and psychological aspects; however, there are very few reports about the association between psychological stress and elements within the residential environment, such as the home, room, and furniture. Therefore, in this study, we focused on the effects of indoor flooring in the residential environment on stress, as flooring is a feature that the human body is in contact with for long periods of time. We objectively measured the extent of psychological stress perceived while walking on carpeting and on wood flooring.

    Methods: Forty-two healthy subjects were recruited for this study, and were asked to walk on carpeting and wood flooring for 10 min each. Their electroencephalogram (EEG) and skin impedance values were measured for each task.

    Results: The α-wave content percentage in EEG data and skin impedance values were significantly higher just after walking on carpet than just after walking on wood flooring.

    Conclusion: Walking on carpeting induces less stress than walking on wood flooring.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 115 | views: 363 | pages: 721-728

    Background: Obesity has become a serious problem for Chinese Han nationality. This research aimed to evaluate the prevalence of and trends in obesity among Chinese Korean nationality children and adolescents (1991–2010).

    Methods: We used data from Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH). CNSSCH was utilized to monitor Chinese students’ health condition and released its data every 5 yr (1991, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010). The standard weight-for-height was the 80th percentile for sex- and age-specific growth charts based on the 1985 CNSSCH data. Obesity was defined as ≧120% of standard weight-for-height.

    Results: The total age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 15.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), 14.9-16.9%) among Chinese Korean children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 yr. Children or adolescents who were boys (Rate ratios (RR), 1.35; 95% CI, 1.19–1.53) or aged 10–12 (RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.17–1.63) were more likely to be obese. The trend analysis of the 19-yr period implied a serious annual increasing trend during 1991-2000 (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02–1.07) and during 2000-2010 (RR,, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.11–1.13). Chinese Korean children may also be more likely to become obese than Han nationality children during 1991-2010.

    Conclusions: A serious and continuous increasing trend was in the prevalence of obesity among Chinese Korean children and adolescents during 1991–2010. Childhood obesity had become a serious problem. This prognosis is worrisome.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 130 | views: 318 | pages: 729-738

    Background: To evaluate the satisfaction of mothers with the quality of care provided by maternity institutions in East Kazakhstan on the basis of the “Quality of hospital Care for mothers and newborn babies, assessment tool” (WHO, 2009).

    Methods: This cross-sectional study took place in 2013 and covered five maternity hospitals in East Kazakhstan (one referral, two urban and two rural). To obtain information, interviews with 872 patients were conducted. The standard tool covered 12 areas ranging from pregnancy to childcare. A score was assigned to each area of care (from 0 to 3). The assessment provided the semi-quantitative data on the quality of hospital care for women and newborns from the perception of mothers.

    Results: The average satisfaction score was 2.48 with a range from 2.2 to 2.7. The mean age of women was 27.4 yr. Forty-two percent were primiparas. Mean birth weight was 3455.4 g. All infants had ‘skin to skin’ contact with their mothers immediately after birth. Mean number of antenatal visits to family clinics was 8.6. Only 42.1% of the respondents used contraceptives while the rest were not aware of contraception, never applied it and could not distinguish between different methods and devices.

    Conclusions: The quality of care was substandard in all institutions. To improve the quality of care, WHO technologies in perinatal care could be applied.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 99 | views: 327 | pages: 739-747

    Background: In Algeria, the data on infertility and its various causes are rare. Recently, the introduction of assisted reproduction has allowed expecting that 300000 couples, which represent 7% of couples of reproductive age, face difficulty conceiving a child. Knowing that most idiopathic cases are likely to be due to chromosomal abnormalities, we aimed to investigate genetic defects by karyotype analysis in Algerian infertile men, using peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Methods: A cytogenetic study was conducted on 10 men from infertile couples by Karyotype analysis of R-banding performed by lymphocyte culture technique. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed and molecular abnormalities were investigated by polymerase chain reaction. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were evaluated by immunoradiometric method.

    Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 30% of the patients. We identified a homogenous Klinefelter syndrome patient with 47, XXY karyotype, a mosaic Klinefelter syndrome patient with 47, XXY/46, XY karyotype and a 46, XX male. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the sex-determining region Y was translocated to the short arm of the X chromosome in patient with 46, XX chromosomal constitution and the presence of the SRY gene was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and electrophoresis.

    Conclusion: The occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in 30% of the infertile men strongly supports the inclusion of routine cytogenetic testing for diagnostic establishment and suitable counseling for couples seeking for assisted reproduction technologies.



  • XML | PDF | downloads: 120 | views: 376 | pages: 748-753

    Background: Our aim was to forward an effective therapeutic approach by comparing efficacy and psychological states between patients with senile ischemic heart failure undergone ICU and conventional therapies.

    Methods: We selected 64 patients from Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Rizhao (Shandong, China) between June 2013 and June 2014. The patients had ischemic heart disease, and were monitored for one-year time span. They were randomly divided into the experiment and control group, each of which of 32 cases. The experimental group received an ICU therapy, whereas the control group was treated with conventional therapy. The result of patients’ cardiac function, SDSSAS index and clinical efficacies were monitored and compared.

    Results: Both groups, especially the experiment group showed significant improvement in the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, left ventricular ejection fraction and cardiac NYHA rating (P<0.05). The experiment group needed less hospital stay and hence significantly more cost effective in comparison to control group (P<0.05). The therapy in terms of stent implantation, coronary artery bypass surgery and pure medication was not of statistical significant (P>0.05). In comparison to control group, the experiment group showed significantly lower mortality rate in short and long term (P<0.05). The SDSSAS rating of the 2 groups, especially the control group was significantly increased (P< 0.05).

    Conclusion: We observed improvement in clinical efficacy and depressed anxiety among patients with serious senile ischemic heart failure, after specialized ICU therapy.



  • XML | PDF | downloads: 121 | views: 337 | pages: 754-760

    Background: The South-southern zone of Nigeria is one of the zones in the country that has reported consistent high prevalent rates of HIV/AIDS pandemic in the last decade. In spite of bio-medical reasons adduced for the spread of the pandemic, socio-cultural factors may be major issues in the access to both prevention and treatment services especially for women. Hence, this study investigated the socio-cultural factors, which influence the access of women to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment services in Nigeria.

    Methods: We utilised the social survey viz. the unstructured interviews and the focus group discussions (FGDs) as methods for collecting data.

    Results: Socio-cultural norms, stereotypes and expectations still influence the access of women to these services. Such socio-cultural barriers are not significantly reduced by urbanization and the deadly threat of the epidemic. These socio-cultural variables, which impede the access of women to these services, are webbed around the dominant narratives of male superiority and the immorality culturally ascribed to women who openly discuss safe sex or seek prevention devices like the condom.

    Conclusion: There is need for more emphasis on gender equality in sexuality and for HIV/AIDS programme planners and policy makers to think and act outside the box of the narratives of male superiority sponsored by socio-cultural norms in addressing the peculiar challenges of women in accessing HIV/AIDS services.



  • XML | PDF | downloads: 96 | views: 300 | pages: 761-767

    Background: Transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) T869C (rs1800470, the same below) gene polymorphism is notably relative with the development of Diabetic Nephropathy (DN),and CC/CT genotype diabetic have higher frequency of than TT genotype diabetic. To find out individual risk factors in the two genotypes especially in susceptible genotype could provide more efficient and targeted prevention.

    Methods: This was a prospective cohort study.  A total of 251 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients [53.4% male, 56(52-67) years] were enrolled in this cohort study. Multiple concerned factors were collected and the relationship of these risk factors and development of DN were evaluated by Cox regression analysis. Hazard ratios of development of DN were calculated by Kaplan-Meier curves and the Cox proportional hazards model for CC/CT genotype versus TT genotype patients.

    Results: TGF-β1 T869C gene polymorphism was an independent predictor of DN in T2DM patients (HR, 2.08; 95%CI, 1.18-3.66; P=0.012). Hyperlipemia (HR, 1.91; 95%CI, 1.19-3.08; P=0.007), age (HR, 0.95; 95%CI, 0.93-0.98; P=0.001) and smoking status (HR, 2.36; 95%CI, 1.07-5.21; P=0.033) were risk indictors of the development of DN in CC/CT genotype patients. HbA1c (HR, 2.8; 95%CI, 1.07-7.30; P=0.036), hypertension (HR, 7.46; 95%CI, 1.38-40.29; P=0.02), and hyperlipemia (HR, 12.33; 95%CI, 1.05-145.39; P=0.046) were risk indictors for the development of DN in TT genotype patients.

    Conclusion: TGF-β1 T869C gene polymorphism was an independent predictor of DN for T2DM patients and CC/CT genotype had higher susceptibility to DN. CC/CT genotype and TT genotype patients had different risk indictors of DN.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 110 | views: 383 | pages: 768-773

    Background: P Cesarean delivery rates have been increasing throughout the world. Parallel to the developments in the world the cesarean rate in Turkey has risen to 48.1% in 2013. Some of the social factors were related with cesarean births. The purpose of this study was to determine cesarean birth rates and to find out social factors affecting the cesarean birth in primiparous women.

    Methods: This study was conducted in Burdur Province, Turkey between the dates of 1 Jan 2012–31 Dec 2012 on 223 primiparous women. The data was collected with data collection form prepared by the researchers by using face-to-face interview technique. In these analyses, chi-square and Backward Logistic regression analyses were used.

    Results: In multivariate analyses, the place of delivery (OR: 11.2 [2.9-42.46] in private hospital and OR: 6.1 [2.6-14.1] in university hospital); time of the birth (OR: 7.1 [3.1-16.0]); doctor’s effect (OR: 4.0 [1.8-8.95]) and husband’s employment status (OR: 2.23 [1.0-4.7]) have been identified as factors affecting the caesarean delivery in primiparous women.

    Conclusion: Although the results do not show all of the factors affecting the caesarean delivery in primiparous women, they reveal that medical reasons are not the only reason in this increase trend. Health policy makers and health professionals are required to identify the causes of this increase and to take measures.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 104 | views: 332 | pages: 774-780

    Background: Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica is a foodborne and waterborne zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. The illness occurs in regions with intensive sheep or cattle production. In some parts of Iran the incidence of human infection has increased over the past decades. Since Chaharmahal and Bakhtiyari Province has been known as a main pole of traditional animal husbandry and there was no information about human fascioliasis in this region, the present study was carried out on human population to determine the seroprevalence of this infection.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study 1475 serum samples collected from individuals attended to clinical laboratory of the province were subjected to ELISA to detect anti-F. hepatica IgG antibodies. The socio- demographic characteristics of the subjects were also collected through questionnaires.

    Results: In spite of expectation, the present study showed that out of the 1475 serum samples examined anti- F. hepatica IgG antibodies were found only in two of the subjects (0.135%). Therefore, because of the very few number of positive cases no statistical analysis was applicable.

    Conclusion: According to the finding of this investigation, human fascioliasis may not be an important health problem in this region of Iran. However, for a better understanding of situation of this parasitic infection in this area more comprehensive animal and human studies are needed.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 103 | views: 327 | pages: 781-786

    Background: The effect of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei) as safe organisms was examined on fungal growth and aflatoxin gene regulation in Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Methods: The fungus was cultured in presence of two different concentrations of L. acidophilus and L. casei in MRS broth medium. Mycelia dry weight is indicated as criteria to evaluate fungal growth. Besides, investigation of aflR gene expression by Real Time PCR was performed for analysis of gene regulatory effects in aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway.

    Results: Both Lactobacillus strongly inhibited fungal growth in the concentrations of 1. 5 102, 1. 5 103 . Expression analysis of aflatoxin genes pathway by real time PCR showed inhibitory effect of L. acidophilus and L. casei on expression of aflR gene. The gene expression revealed to be reduced at the approximate rates of 99. 7% and 98% respectively by L. acidopholus and L. casei in concentrations of 1. 5 102  and more.

    Conclusion: L. acidophilus and L. casei may be used successfully as suitable candidates in controlling of A. parasiticus growth on food and feed as well as reducing of aflatoxin contamination.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 125 | views: 982 | pages: 787-794

    Background: The workers who are working in the open and warm environments are at risk of health effects of climate and heat changes. It is expected that the risk is increase with global warming. This study aimed to investigate the changes of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index in the past and to predict their trend of future changes in Tehran, capital of Iran.

    Methods: The meteorological data recorded in Tehran, Iran during the statistical period between 1961 and 2009 were obtained from the Iran Meteorological Organization and based on them, WBGT index was calculated and processed using Man-Kendall correlation test.

    Results: The results of Man-Kendall correlation test showed that the trend of changes of annual mean WBGT during the statistical period under study (1961-2009) has been significantly increasing. In addition, the result of proposed predictive model estimated that an increase of about 1.55 degree in WBGT index will be seen over 40 years from 2009 to 2050 in Tehran.

    Conclusion: Climate change in Tehran has had an effect on person's exposure to heat stresses consistent with global warming.



  • XML | PDF | downloads: 205 | views: 360 | pages: 795-805

    Background: Social health is a dimension of health affected and interacts with other dimensions. Considering the rate of world changes, foresighting the influence of future events and possible trends on social health could bring about advantageous information for social policy makers.

    Methods: This is a qualitative study of futurology with cross impact analysis approach. After studying possible trends and events in future, they were categorized in four domains including population, resources, climate changes, and globalization and 12 groups of events; and they were used to design a questionnaire. It was given to experts and their opinions were collected through depth interviews between May 2013 and Sep 2013.

    Results: Analysis of experts’ opinions reveals that future trends in four main potential domains may have some positive and more negative impacts on Iranians’ social health.

    Conclusion: The global “resource challenge” is the most important incoming event, considering to the four domains of global events and its final and potential effects will be the increase of inequalities leading to social threat. Since inequalities are considered the most important risk factor of health in the societies, the solution for dispel the impact of world trends on Iranians’ social health is managing the crisis of inequalities which is started with fore sighting and adopting preventive strategies in all four domains.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 115 | views: 522 | pages: 806-813

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of virulence determinants and vancomycin- resistant genes among Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium obtained from various clinical sources.

    Methods: The study was performed on the 280 enterococcal isolated from clinical specimens in Hamadan hospitals, western Iran in 2012-14. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. The presence of vancomycin-resistant genes and virulence genes was investigated using PCR.

    Results: Totally 280 enterococcal isolates were identified as follows: E. faecalis (62.5%), E. faecium (24%) and Enterococcus spp (13.5%). The results of antibiotic susceptibility testing showed that resistance rates to vancomycin and teicoplanin in E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were 5% and 73%, respectively. Of Sixty vancomycin-resistant Enterococci strains, fifty-one isolates were identified as E. faecium (VREfm) and nine as E. faecalis (VREfs). Prevalence of esp, hyl, and asa1 genes were determined as 82%, 71.6%, and 100%, respectively in E. faecium strains; and 78%, 56/6%, and 97%, respectively in E. faecalis strains.

    Conclusion: The increased frequency of VREF, as seen with rapid rise in the number of vanA isolates should be considered in infection control practices.



Case Report(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 181 | views: 365 | pages: 814-816

    At present, most of Iran is free of bovine tuberculosis (TB). The strategy of control and eradication in Iran involves a tuberculation test and slaughter of reactors, a procedure transformed the present-day prevalence of TB into a sporadic occurrence. This paper describes the first report of bovine tuberculosis in a European fallow deer (Dama dama dama) in Iran. The deer was emaciated and found dead in the Hoveize Provincial Zoo Park. Post-mortem examinations revealed multifocal granulomatous and suppurative abscesses in the lungs and mesenteric lymph nodes. These post-mortem indicators led the authors to suspect TB, and the PCR test and bacteriology tests confirmed it as an infection by the Mycobacterium bovis. This survey discusses the important implications of such findings for wildlife, especially livestock, as well as for human TB disease control, because deer are often conserved in public zoos and humans often come into contact with them.



Letter to the Editor