Vitamin C and Vitamin E Protected B95-8 and Balb/c-3T3 Cells from Apoptosis Induced by Intermittent 50Hz ELF-EMF Radiation
Background: The extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF), mainly emitted by electric transmission lines and household electronic appliances, is becoming a worldwide health risk. It is imperative to investigate the biological impacts of ELF-EMF and to identify products that are resistant to the radiation from 50 Hz ELF-EMF. In this study, we investigated the biological impacts of apoptosis caused by 50 Hz Power line ELF-EMF and the protective effects of Vit C and Vit E.
Methods: We conducted this study in Beijing, China in 2013. B95-8 and Balb/c-3T3 cells were divided into a sham group, an expo group and 3 expo groups in which the cells were preincubated with various concentrations of Vit C and Vit E. Then, all of the cells were exposed to 50 Hz Power line ELF-EMF and examined for apoptosis. The cells were collected for apoptosis detection after exposure.
Results: The percent of cells that undergoing apoptosis and preincubated with various concentrations of Vit C and Vit E were significantly lower than in the Expo group.
Conclusion: Vit C and Vit E exert significant protective effects from 50 Hz ELF-EMF radiation. The optimal protective concentrations of Vit C and Vit E are 10 μmol/L and 25 μmol/L, respectively. The protective effect of vitamins was more apparent for Balb/c-3T3 cells than B95-8 cells.
Stratton D, Lange S, Inal JM (2013). Pulsed extremely low-frequency magnetic fields stimulate microvesicle release from human monocytic leukaemia cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 430(2):470-5.
Kim J, Ha CS, Lee HJ, Song K (2010). Repetitive exposure to a 60-Hz time-varying magnetic field induces DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis in human cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 400(4):739-44.
Focke F, Schuermann D, Kuster N, Schär P (2010). DNA fragmentation in human fibroblasts under extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure. Mutat Res, 683(1–2):74-83.
Jajte J, Zmyślony M, Palus J, Dziubałtowska E, Rajkowska E (2001). Protective effect of melatonin against in vitro iron ions and 7 mT 50 Hz magnetic field-induced DNA damage in rat lymphocytes. Mutat Res, 483(1–2):57-64.
Jelodar G, Akbari A, Nazifi S (2013). The prophylactic effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress indexes in rat eyes following exposure to radiofrequency wave generated by a BTS antenna model. Int J Radiat Biol, 89(2):128-31.
Gao X, Luo R, Ma B, Wang H, Liu T, Zhang J, Lian Z, Cui X (2013). [Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, 42(4):642-6.
Zhang M, Li X, Bai L, Uchida K, Bai W, Wu B, Xu W, Zhu H, Huang H (2013). Effects of low frequency electromagnetic field on proliferation of human epidermal stem cells: An in vitro study. Bioelectromagnetics, 34(1):74-80.
Seong Y, Moon J, Kim J (2014). Egr1 mediated the neuronal differentiation induced by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Life Sci, 102(1):16-27.
Podda MV, Leone L, Barbati SA, Mastrodonato A, Li Puma DD, Piacentini R, Grassi C (2014). Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields enhance the survival of newborn neurons in the mouse hippocampus. Eur J Neurosci, 39(6):893-903.
Gapeyev AB, Lukyanova NA, Gudkov SV (2014). Hydrogen peroxide induced by modulated electromagnetic radiation protects the cells from DNA damage. Cent Eur J Biol, 9(10):915-21.
Laramee CB, Frisch P, McLeod K, Li GC (2014). Elevation of heat shock gene expression from static magnetic field exposure in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics, 35(6):406-13.
Kumar S, Kesari KK, Behari J (2011). The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field. Clinics (Sao Paulo), 66(7):1237-45.
Hilz FM, Ahrens P, Grad S, Stoddart MJ, Dahmani C, Wilken FL, Sauerschnig M, et al. (2014). Influence of extremely low frequency, low energy electromagnetic fields and combined mechanical stimulation on chondrocytes in 3-D constructs for cartilage tissue engineering. Bioelectromagnetics. 35(2):116-28.
Fadel MA, Mohamed SA, Abdelbacki AM, El-Sharkawy AH (2014). Inhibition of Salmonella typhi growth using extremely low frequency electromagnetic (ELF-EM) waves at resonance frequency. J Appl Microbiol, 117(2):358-65.
Wertheimer N, Leeper ED (1979). Electrical wiring configurations and childhood cancer. Am J Epidemiol, 109(3): 273-284.
Shams Lahijani M, Tehrani DM, Fereydouni N (2013). Effects of 50 Hz extremely low frequency sinusoidal magnetic fields on the apoptosis of the hearts of preincubated chicken embryos at different levels of developments. Int J Radiat Biol, 89(4):234-42.
Cui YJ, Liu XY, Yang TT, Mei YA, Hu CL (2014). Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields inhibits T-type calcium channels via AA/LTE4 signaling pathway. Cell Calcium, 55(1):48-58.
Alcaraz M, Olmos E, Alcaraz-Saura M, Achel DG, Castillo J (2014). Effect of long-term 50 Hz magnetic field exposure on the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes of mice. Electromagn Biol Med, 33(1):51-7.
Li S-s, Zhang Z-Y, Yang C-J, Lian H-Y, Cai P (2013). Gene expression and reproductive abilities of male Drosophila melanogaster subjected to ELF–EMF exposure. Mutat Res, 758(1–2):95-103.
Mihai CT, Rotinberg P, Brinza F, Vochita G (2014). Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cause DNA strand breaks in normal cells. J Environ Health Sci Eng, 12(1):15.
Yoon HE, Lee JS, Myung SH, Lee YS (2014). Increased γ-H2AX by exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields combined with ionizing radiation, but not hydrogen peroxide, in non-tumorigenic human cell lines. Int J Radiat Biol, 90(4):291-8.
Luukkonen J, Liimatainen A, Juutilainen J, Naarala J (2014). Induction of genomic instability, oxidative processes, and mitochondrial activity by 50 Hz magnetic fields in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Mutat Res, 760:33-41.
Özorak A, Nazıroğlu M, Çelik Ö, Yüksel M, Özçelik D, Özkaya MO, Çetin H, Kahya MC, Kose SA (2013). Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)- and Mobile Phone (900 and 1800 MHz)-Induced Risks on Oxidative Stress and Elements in Kidney and Testis of Rats During Pregnancy and the Development of Offspring. Bio Trace Elem Res, 156(1-3):221-9.
Naziroglu M, Yuksel M, Kose SA, Ozkaya MO (2013). Recent Reports of Wi-Fi and Mobile Phone-Induced Radiation on Oxidative Stress and Reproductive Signaling Pathways in Females and Males. J Membr Biol, 246(12):869-75.
Lee SK, Park S, Gimm YM, Kim YW (2014). Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields Induce Spermatogenic Germ Cell Apoptosis: Possible Mechanism. Biomed Res Int, 567183.
Jia HL, Wang C, Li Y, Lu Y, Wang PP, Pan WD, Song T (2014). Combined Effects of 50 Hz Magnetic Field and Magnetic Nanoparticles on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of PC12 Cells. Biomed Environ Sci, 27(2):97-105.
Finkel T, Holbrook NJ (2000). Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of aging. Nature, 408(6809):239-47.
Bese NS, Munzuroglu F, Uslu B, Arbak S, Yesiladali G, Sut N, Altug T, Ober A (2007). Vitamin E protects against the development of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol), 19(4):260-4.
Das Roy L, Giri S, Singh S, Giri A (2013). Effects of radiation and vitamin C treatment On metronidazole genotoxicity in mice. Mutat Res, 753(2):65-71.
Lin JR, Qin HH, Wu WY, He SJ, Xu JH (2014). Vitamin C Protects Against UV Irradiation-Induced Apoptosis Through Reactivating Silenced Tumor Suppressor Genes p21 and p16 in a Tet-Dependent DNA Demethylation Manner in Human Skin Cancer Cells. Cancer Biother Radiopharm, 29(6):257-64.