Original Article

Structural Relationships among Self-Management, Self-Resilience, and Adaptability to Chinese and Korean College Life in Physical Education Majors


Background: We aimed to investigate the relationships among self-management, self-resilience, and adaptability to college life in Chinese and Korean students majoring in physical education. In addition, we explored the mediating role of self-resilience in the relationship between self-management and adaptability to college life.

Methods: Random sampling was used to identify participants majoring in physical education at five colleges and universities in Shaanxi (China) and four universities in Kyonggi-do Province (Republic of Korea) in June 2020. We analyzed data for 700 students via exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, correlation analysis, structural equation model analysis, and path analysis.

Results: Self-management had a significant impact on self-resilience (P<0.001), while self-resilience had a significant impact on adaptability to college life (P<0.001). Among self-management variables, body management had a significant negative impact on adaptability to college life (P<0.001). Self-resilience had a mediating effect on the relationship between self-management and adaptability to college life (P=0.024).

Conclusion: Our findings highlight the need to develop systems that cultivate students’ abilities to integrate into university life, including their abilities to face unsatisfactory studies, manage spare time, make physical adjustments, adapt to new living environments, and maintain interpersonal relationships. Strengthening self-management abilities will lead to improvements in self-resilience, adaptability, and satisfaction with university life among physical education majors.

1. Zhang S, Zhang Y (2018). College students’ early inferiority complex, mental resilience and life adaptation: formation and influ-ence. Journal of Shenyang Agricultural Univer-sity (Social Sciences Edition), 20(5):575-9.
2. Niu D, Zhang JF, Fang RF (2017). The Ef-fects of Learning Strategies and Interper-sonal Competence on Freshmen’s Col-lege Adaptation. Fudan Education Forum, 15(5):50-5.
3. Gao SH (2018). Quantitative and compre-hensive analysis of the relationship be-tween life event and mental health of Chinese college students. Modern Preventive Medicine, 10:1812-15.
4. Bao W, Jin HH (2020). The Influence of the College Entrance Examination Reform on Freshman’s Academic Adaptation: Inhibition or Promotion? Journal of East China Normal University (Educational Sciences), 38(6):20-33.
5. Lei H, Zhou Y (2017). The relationship be-tween freshmen adjustment, time man-agement disposition and subjective well-being among freshmen. Journal of Guizhou Normal University (Natural Sciences). 35(5):102-5.
6. Xiao ZR, Chen XC, Yang FR (2018). The construction of the college students’ self-management. Journal of Jining Medical College, 4:301-4.
7. Dishman RK, Motl RW, Sallis JF, et al (2005). Self-management strategies medi-ate self-efficacy and physical activity. Am J Prev Med, 29(1):10-8.
8. Hamid GS,, Nooshin E, Hassan A (2011). The Comparison of emotional intelli-gence and psychological skills and their relationship with experience among indi-vidual and Team athletes in superior league. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30:2394-400.
9. Du TL (2015). Study on self-flexibility: theory and evidence. Master Thesis, Soochow Univer-sity, Jiangsu, China.
10. Xi JZ, Sang B, Zuo ZH (2008). The studies on psychological resilience: its retrospect and prospect. Psychol Sci, 31(4):995-8.
11. Friborg O, Hjemdal O, Rosenvinge JH, et al (2003). A new rating scale for adult resili-ence, what are the central protective re-sources behind healthy adjustment. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res, 12(2):65-76.
12. Tugade MM, Fredrick BL, Barrett LF (2004). Psychological resilience and positive emo-tional granularity: examining the benefits of positive emotions on coping and health. J Pers, 72(6):1161-90.
13. Friborg O, Barlaug D, Martinussen M (2005). Resilience in relation to personality and intelligence. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res, 14(1):29-42.
14. Zhao J, Luo Z, Wang L (2014). Relation-ships among resilience, positive emotion and mental health in graduates. Chin J Health Psychol, 18(9):1078-80.
15. Zhu ZX (1989). A dictionary of psychology. Bei-jing: Beijing Normal University Press. China.
16. Zhang LN (2011). The relationship between cop-ing-style and adaptability and research on coping-skill training in college students. Master Thesis, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Inner Mongolia, China.
17. Adams HE (1972). Psychology of adjustment. New York: The Ronald Press Company. USA.
18. Bruno FJ (1977). Human adjustment and personal growth: seven pathways. New York: John Wiley & Sons. USA.
19. Lakoff A (1986). Adjustment and mental health. New York: Mc Graw-Hill. USA.
20. Lafferty M, Breslin G, Britton D, et al. (2020). Supporting youth athletes during COVID-19. British Psychological Society, UK.
21. Kim JT (2009). The influences of self-management on satisfaction of perfor-mance and self-confidence in combative athletes. The Journal of Korean Alliance of Martial Arts, 11(3):305-18.
22. Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, et al (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th Ed). Pearson-Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. USA.
23. Fornell C, Larcker DF (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unob-servable variables and measurement er-ror. J Mark Res, 18:39-50.
24. Huh JH (2003). Development and validation of athletes’ self-management question-naire. Korean Society of Sport Psychology, 14(2):95-109.
25. Block JH, Block J (1980). The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the organi-zation of behavior. In W. A. Collins (Ed.), Development of cognition, affect and social relations: The Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology. 13:39-101. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
26. Baker RW, Siryk B (1989). SACQ student ad-aptation to college questionnaire manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Ser-vices. USA.
27. Kline RB (1998). Principles and practice of struc-tural equation modeling. New York: The Guilford Press. USA.
28. Han SM, Jin SP (2008). The relationship be-tween archers’ self-management and self-confidence. Korean Journal of Sport Psycholo-gy, 19(1):19-32.
29. Han TJ (2008). The relationship among am-ateur wrestlers’ achievement goal orienta-tion, self-management and sport self-confident. Korean Journal of Sport Psychology, 19(4):35-52.
30. Kim KS, Chun GY (2010). The influences of self-management on self-confidence and athletic performances of Ssireum players. The Journal of Korean Alliance of Mar-tial Arts, 12(2):65-80.
31. Kim YW (2010). An effect of hockey play-er’s self-management on confidence and performance. Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies, 40(2):853-61.
32. Nam HW, Park SH (2012). Effects of time management behaviors of college stu-dents on their self-management and per-ceived confidence depending on leisure sports participation. Korean Journal of Sports Science, 21(1):155-68.
33. Kim JK (2015). The effect of university Taekwondo players’ exercise passion on self-management and sport confidence. The Korean Society of Sports Science, 24(3):281-92.
34. Kim SB, Seong NM, Kang JS (2017). Mod-erating effects of ego-resilience on the re-lationship between academic stress and school adjustment of adolescent. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Soci-ety, 18(8):145-51.
35. Kim KA (2019). The Effect of Optimism Intervention and Implementation Inten-tion on Depression, Optimism, Subjec-tive Well-Being, Self-Efficacy in College Student. Stress, 27:64-73.
36. Han HW, Kim YM (2016). Influence of Self-management on Dance Confidence and Dance Achievement of University Stu-dent Majoring in Dance. Indian J Sci Tech-nol, 9(25):1-7.
37. Stephen DM, Sheldon H (2009). Advances in Applied Sport Psychology: A review. NY: Routledge. USA.
38. Joseph CR, Marne LA, Christine HM, et al (2005). Life satisfaction and student per-formance. Acad Manag Learn Educ, 4(4):421-33.
39. de la Fuente J, Paoloni P, Kauffman D, et al (2020). Big Five, Self-Regulation, and Coping Strategies as Predictors of Achievement Emotions in Undergradu-ate Students. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17:3602.
40. Sajeevanie TL (2020). Importance of self-management and future research thoughts: A critical review perspective. In-ternational Journal of Creative Research Thoughts, 8(7):4122-27.
41. Hartley MT (2013). Investigating the rela-tionship of resilience to academic persis-tence in college students with mental health issues. Rehabil Couns Bull, 56(4):240-50.
IssueVol 50 No 6 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v50i6.6420
Adaptation to college life Physical education Self-management Self-resilience

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Jing L, Kim S-Y. Structural Relationships among Self-Management, Self-Resilience, and Adaptability to Chinese and Korean College Life in Physical Education Majors. Iran J Public Health. 2021;50(6):1213-1223.