Original Article

Prevalence of Suboptimal Health Status and Its Influencing Factors among Chinese Software Programmers


Background: There is a lack of specific study of the suboptimal health status (SHS) in software programmers. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of SHS and analyze the influencing factors among Chinese software programmers.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a programmer SHS scale was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of SHS, as well chi-square test and multi-factor logistic regression were applied to analyze the relationship between suboptimal health and personal basic information, living and work habits in software programmers.

Results: The prevalence of SHS was 18.67% in software programmers. Single factor analysis found that there were differences in suboptimal health prevalence among different work cities (P = 0.031), hours of sleep per day (P = 0.046), overtime days per month (P = 0.010) and exercise frequency per week (P = 0.015). The factors for suboptimal health such as hours of sleep per day (OR = 0.307, 95% CI = 0.096~0.984) and exercise frequency per week (OR = 0.190, 95% CI = 0.054~0.671) significantly affected subjects of SHS via multi-factor logistic regression analysis, indicating that adequate sleep and exercise decreased the chance of SHS up to 30.70% and 19.00%, respectively.

Conclusion: Suboptimal health had become a serious public health challenge in Chinese software programmers. Whilst, the health status of the programmers could be effectively elevated by improving lifestyles.

1. Grad FP (2002). The preamble of the constitution of the World Health Organization. Bull World Health Organ, 80(12):981-4.
2. Wu S, Xuan Z, Li F, et al (2016). Work-recreation balance, health-promoting lifestyles and suboptimal health status in southern China: A cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 13(3):339.
3. Chen J, Xiang H, Jiang P, et al (2017). The role of healthy lifestyle in the implementation of regressing ruboptimal health status among college students in China: a nested case-control study. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 14(3):240.
4. Schmid G, Dinkel A, Henningsen P, et al (2014). Assessment of psychological aspects of somatoform disorders: a study on the German version of the Health Attitude Survey (HAS). Compr Psychiatry, 55(1):155-64.
5. Schaefert R, Hausteiner-Wiehle C, Häuser W, et al (2012). Non-specific, functional, and somatoform bodily complaints. Dtsch Arztebl Int, 109(47):803-13.
6. Chen J, Cheng J, Liu Y, et al (2014). Associations between breakfast eating habits and health-promoting lifestyle, suboptimal health status in Southern China: A population based, cross sectional study. J Transl Med, 12(1):348.
7. Yao Y, Wang L, Chen Y, et al (2015). Correlation analysis of anxiety status and sub-health status among students of 13-26 years old. Int J Clin Exp Med, 8(6):9810-4.
8. Xu T, Liu J, Zhu G, Han S (2020). Prevalence and associated lifestyle factors of suboptimal health status among Chinese children using a multi-level model. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(5):1497.
9. Li F, Chen J, Yu L, et al (2016). The role of stress management in the relationship between purpose in life and self-rated health in teachers: A mediation analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 13(7):719.
10. Liang Y, Chu X, Meng S, Zhang J, Wu L, Yan Y (2018). Relationship between stress-related psychosocial work factors and suboptimal health among Chinese medical staff: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 8(3):e018485.
11. Zi J, Chen D, Geng X (2019). Investigation and analysis of northwest universities teacher’s physical sub-health status and its influencing factors-a case study of Chang’an university. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 342:492-504.
12. El Ansari W, Berg-Beckhoff G (2017). Country and gender-specific achievement of healthy nutrition and physical activity guidelines: latent class analysis of 6266 university students in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine. Nutrients, 9(7):738.
13. Zhang X, Zou Y, Feng Y (2015). Investigation of sub-health status and its influencing factors of community inhabitants. Guide China Med (Chin), 13:1-4.
14. Chen J, Zhao X, Wang J, et al (2016). Research progress of influence factors for suboptimal health status. Modern Preventive Medicine, 43(11):1987-90.
15. Li X, Hong N, Hong S (2012). Item selection in development of Chinese sub-health state evaluation scale. Chinese Journal of Health Stats, 29(1):10-13.
16. Ma C, Xu W, Zhou L, Ma S, Wang Y (2018). Association between lifestyle factors and suboptimal health status among Chinese college freshmen: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 18(1):105.
17. Wang B, Yang S, Huang Z, et al (2018). Data mining-based subhealth analysis of Chinese software programmers in 2017. Inform Med Unlocked, 10(2018):134-42.
18. Wang Y, Ge S, Yan Y, et al (2016). China suboptimal health cohort study: rationale, design and baseline characteristics. J Transl Med, 14(1):291.
19. Worringer B, Genrich M, Müller A, Junne F, Angerer P (2020). How do hospital medical and nursing managers perceive work-related strain on their employees? Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(13):4660.
20. Farhud DD (2015). Impact of lifestyle on health. Iran J Public Health, 44(11):1442-4.
21. Brown LK (2012). Can sleep deprivation studies explain why human adults sleep? Curr Opin Pulm Med, 18(6):541-5.
22. Xu T, Zhu G, Han S (2020). Prevalence of suboptimal health status and the relationships between suboptimal health status and lifestyle factors among Chinese adults using a multi-level Generalized Estimating Equation Model. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(3):763.
23. Ranum BM, Wichstrøm L, Pallesen S, Falch-Madsen J, Halse M, Steinsbekk S (2019). Association between objectively measured sleep duration and symptoms of psychiatric disorders in middle childhood. JAMA Netw Open, 2(12):e1918281.
24. Adams TB, Moore MT, Dye J (2007). The relationship between physical activity and mental health in a national sample of college females. Women Health, 45(1):69-85.
25. Angelantonio ED, Kaptoge S, Wormser D, Willeit P, Butterworth AS, Bansal N (2015). Association of cardiometabolic multimorbidity with mortality. JAMA, 314(1): 52-60.
IssueVol 50 No 7 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v50i7.6625
Software programmers; Suboptimal health status Prevalence Influencing factors

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Tian M, Zhang Q, Zhang Z, Meng J, Liu L. Prevalence of Suboptimal Health Status and Its Influencing Factors among Chinese Software Programmers. Iran J Public Health. 50(7):1361-1371.