Basics of Developing a COVID-19 Reopening Roadmap: A Systematic Scoping Review
Background: The necessity of easing pandemic restrictions is explicit. Due to the harsh consequences of lockdowns, governments are willing to find reasonable pathways to reopen their activities.
Methods: To find out the basics of developing a reopening roadmap, on 6th-10th July 2020, we conducted a systematic search on PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science to review the databases; and Google by manual to review the grey literature. Two independent authors extracted the data, and the senior author solved the discrepancies.
Results: Sixteen documents were included. Data categorized into four sections: principals, general recommendations for individuals, health key metrics, and in-phases strategy. The number of phases or stages differed from three to six, with a minimum of two weeks considered for each one. Health key metrics were categorized into four subsets: sufficient preventive capacities, appropriate diagnostic capacity, appropriate epidemiological monitoring, and sufficient health system capacity. These metrics were used as the criteria for progressing or returning over the roadmap, which guarantees a roadmap's dynamicity. Noticeably, few roadmaps did not mention the criteria that may alter the dynamicity of their roadmap. When some areas face new surges, the roadmap's dynamicity is essential, and it is vital to describe the criteria to stop the reopening process and implement the restrictions again.
Conclusion: Providing evidence for policymaking about lifting the COVID-19 restrictions seems to be missed in the literature should be addressed more, and further studies are recommended.
2. DWP. Universal Credit declarations (claims) and advances: management information Department for Work and Pensions; [updated June 30 2020. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/universal-credit-declarations-claims-and-advances-management-information
3. Roadmap for reopening society and business: Department of the Taoiseach; Department of Health; [updated May 29 2020. https://assets.gov.ie/73722/ffd17d70fbb64b498fd809dde548f411.pdf
4. Joyce R, Xu X. Sector shutdowns during the coronavirus crisis: which workers are most exposed. Institute for Fiscal Studies. 2020.
5. WHO. Maintaining essential health services: new operational guidance for the COVID-19 context [updated June 1 2020. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/01-06-2020-maintaining-essential-health-services-new-operational-guidance-for-the-covid-19-context
6. Khan S, Siddique R, Li H, et al (2020). Impact of coronavirus outbreak on psychological health. J Glob Health, 10(1):010331.
7. Gao J, Zheng P, Jia Y, et al (2020). Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak. PLoS One, 15(4):e0231924.
8. Mattioli AV, Nasi M, Cocchi C, Farinetti A (2020). COVID-19 outbreak: impact of the quarantine-induced stress on cardiovascular disease risk burden. Future Cardiol, 16(6):539-542.
9. Andrea C Tricco, Erin Lillie, Wasifa Zarin (2018). PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and Explanation. Ann Intern Med, 169(7):467-473.
10. Reopening Massachusetts: Baker-Polito Administration; [updated May 18, 2020. Available from: https://www.mass.gov/doc/reopening-massachusetts-may-18-2020/download
11. A Framework for Reopening our Province: Government of Ontario; [updated April 27, 2020. Available from: https://files.ontario.ca/mof-framework-for-reopening-our-province-en-2020-04-27.pdf
12. OUR PLAN TO REBUILD: The UK Government’s COVID-19 recovery strategy: Her Majesty's Government; [updated May 2020. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/our-plan-to-rebuild-the-uk-governments-covid-19-recovery-strategy/our-plan-to-rebuild-the-uk-governments-covid-19-recovery-strategy
13. OPENING UP AMERICA AGAIN: The White House; [updated 4, 2020. Available from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Guidelines-for-Opening-Up-America-Again.pdf
14. National coronavirus response: A road map to reopening: American Enterprise Institute; [updated March 29, 2020. Available from: https://www.aei.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/National-Coronavirus-Response-a-Road-Map-to-Recovering-2.pdf?x88519
15. California’s Pandemic Roadmap: Government of California; [updated 4, 2020. Available from: https://calact.org/assets/Presentation%20for%20Transportation%20Meeting.pdf
16. SHASTA COUNTY ROADMAP TO RECOVERY: Shasta County Health and Human Services Agency; [updated MAY 8, 2020. Available from: https://www.co.shasta.ca.us/docs/libraries/hhsa-docs/roadmap-for-shasta-county_05_08_2020.pdf?sfvrsn=10c5f389_2
17. Roadmap for reopening Connecticut from Governor Lamont: Government of Connecticut; [updated MAY 26, 2020. Available from: https://portal.ct.gov/-/media/Office-of-the-Governor/News/20200526-Governors-Reopen-Report.pdf?la=en
18. Back on Track Indiana: Government of Indiana; [updated July, 2020. Available from: https://backontrack.in.gov/files/BackOnTrack-BoT_Engine_Aug-1_update.pdf
19. ROADMAP FOR REOPENING NASHVILLE: Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County, Tennessee; [updated 9/22/20. Available from: https://www.asafenashville.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Updated_RoadmapforReopeningNashville_09_23-002.pdf
20. NEVADA UNITED ROADMAP TO RECOVERY: Government of Nevada; [updated April 30, 2020. Available from: https://nvhealthresponse.nv.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/NEVADA-UNITED-ROADMAP-TO-RECOVERY-1.pdf
21. Roadmap to easing restrictions: Government of Queensland; [updated July 3 2020. Available from: https://www.covid19.qld.gov.au/government-actions/roadmap-to-easing-queenslands-restrictions
22. COVID-19 coronavirus: WA roadmap: Government of Western Australia; [updated July 14, 2020. Available from: https://www.wa.gov.au/organisation/department-of-the-premier-and-cabinet/covid-19-coronavirus-wa-roadmap
23. Safe Anchorage: Roadmap to Reopening the Municipality of Anchorage: THE MUNICIPALITY OF ANCHORAGE, ALASKA; [Available from: http://www.muni.org/covid-19/documents/final%20safe%20anchorage%20-%20roadmap%20to%20reopening%20the%20municipality.v2%20(1).pdf
24. Joint European Roadmap towards lifting COVID-19 containment measures: European Commission & European Council; [updated March, 2020. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/communication_-_a_european_roadmap_to_lifting_coronavirus_containment_measures_0.pdf
25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NCfIaRDN. Respiratory Hygiene/Cough Etiquette in Healthcare Settings 2020 [updated August 1, 2009. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/infectioncontrol/resphygiene.htm
26. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet, 395(10223):497-506.
27. Mirahmadizadeh A, Borazjani R, Ebrahimi M, et al (2020). COVID-19 Presented with Gastrointestinal Manifestations in an 11-Days-Old Neonate: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Arch Pediatr Infect Dis, 8(3):e104508.
28. Stokes EK, Zambrano LD, Anderson KN, et al (2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019 Case Surveillance - United States, January 22-May 30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 69(24):759-765.
29. National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) DoVD. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) 2020 [updated July 24, 2020. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/your-health/index.html
30. Mahmood SU, Crimbly F, Khan S, et al (2020). Strategies for Rational Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Among Healthcare Providers During the COVID-19 Crisis. Cureus, 12(5):e8248.
31. Hirschmann MT, Hart A, Henckel J, et al (2020). COVID-19 coronavirus: recommended personal protective equipment for the orthopaedic and trauma surgeon. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 28(6):1690-8.
32. Kucharski AJ, Klepac P, Conlan AJK, et al (2020). Effectiveness of isolation, testing, contact tracing, and physical distancing on reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in different settings: a mathematical modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis, 20(10):1151-1160.
33. He Z (2020). What further should be done to control COVID-19 outbreaks in addition to cases isolation and contact tracing measures? BMC Med, 18(1):80.
34. Hellewell J, Abbott S, Gimma A, et al (2020). Feasibility of controlling COVID-19 outbreaks by isolation of cases and contacts. Lancet Glob Health, 8(4):e488-e96.
35. Petersen E, Wasserman S, Lee SS, et al (2020). COVID-19-We urgently need to start developing an exit strategy. Int J Infect Dis, 96:233-9.
36. Zhang J, Litvinova M, Wang W, et al (2020). Evolving epidemiology and transmission dynamics of coronavirus disease 2019 outside Hubei province, China: a descriptive and modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis, 20(7):793-802.
37. Yu X (2020). Modeling return of the epidemic: Impact of population structure, asymptomatic infection, case importation and personal contacts. Travel Med Infect Dis, 37:101858.
38. Legido-Quigley H, Asgari N, Teo YY, et al (2020). Are high-performing health systems resilient against the COVID-19 epidemic? Lancet, 395(10227):848-50.
39. Panovska-Griffiths J, Kerr CC, Stuart RM, et al (2020). Determining the optimal strategy for reopening schools, the impact of test and trace interventions, and the risk of occurrence of a second COVID-19 epidemic wave in the UK: a modelling study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health, 4(11):817-827.
|Issue||Vol 50 No 2 (2021)|
|COVID-19 Health policy Global health Public health|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|