Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Kenya Grade AA Green Coffee Bean Extracts
Background: Kenya AA green coffee bean extracts were tested for natural ingredients used for anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory purposes in cosmetic products.
Methods: Anti-oxidative activities were measured by total polyphenol, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and the 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via nitric oxide (NO) assays, and through quantification of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression by western blotting. Data analyses were performed using independent Student’s t-tests, with statistical significance set at P < 0.05.
Results: Total polyphenol content of water and ethanol extract was 169.0 ± 3.1 mg and 300.34 ± 16.6 mg tannic acid/g dry weight, respectively. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of all the extracts were significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Kenya AA green coffee bean extracts were toxic at a concentration of 1,000 µg/mL in RAW 264.7 cells. Anti-inflammatory activity as determined by NO assay showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO was significantly inhibited following treatment with Kenya AA green coffee bean extracts in a concentration-dependent manner. iNOS and COX-2 protein expression was also significantly inhibited following treatment.
Conclusion: These results highlight the potential of Kenya AA green coffee bean extracts as a naturally active anti-inflammatory agent in cosmetic products.
2. Lawrence T, Willoughby DA, Gilroy DW (2002). Anti-inflammatory lipid mediators and insights into the resolution of in-flammation. Nat Rev Immunol, 2(10):787-795.
3. Ryter SW, Kim HP, Hoetzel A, et al. (2007). Mechanisms of cell death in oxidative stress. Antioxid Redox Signal, 9(1):49-89.
4. Shin JS, Kim JM, An WG (2012). Anti-inflammatory effect of red ginseng through regulation of MAPK in lipopoly-saccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7. J Phys-iol Pathol Korean Med, 26(1):293-300.
5. Knowles RG, Moncada S (1992). Nitric ox-ide as a signal in blood vessels. Trends Bio-chem Sci, 17(10):399-402.
6. Nathan C (1992). Nitric oxide as a secretory product of mammalian cells. FASEB J. 6(12):3051-3064.
7. Seo HS (2006). Development of sensory and sensibility evaluations of coffee and analysis of coffee preference types with segmented coffee consumers. Seoul Na-tional University. Seoul, Korea.
8. Yoo DJ (2013). Coffee inside (5th edition). Li-on company. Seoul, Korea.
9. Lopez-Garcia E, van Dam RM, Willett WC, et al. (2006). Coffee consumption and coronary heart disease in men and wom-en: A prospective cohort study. Circulation, 113(17):2045-2053.
10. Farah A, Donangelo CM (2006). Phenolic compounds in coffee. Braz J Plant Physiol, 18(1):23-36.
11. Esquivel P, Jimenez VM (2012). Functional properties of coffee and coffee by-products. Food Res Int, 46(2):488-495.
12. Singleton VL, Rossi JA (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolyb-dic: phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Viticult, 16:144-158.
13. Blois MS (1958). Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature. 181:1199-1120.
14. Nicoletta F, Roberta K, Min Y, et al (1999). Screening of dietary carotenoids and ca-rotenoid-rich fruit extracts for antioxidant activities applying 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radi-cal cation decolorization assay. Methods Enzymol, 299:379-389.
15. Carmichael J, DeGraff WG, Gazdar AF, el al (1987). Evaluation of a tetrazolium-based semiautomated colorimetric assay: assessment of chemosensitivity testing. Cancer Res, 47(4):936-942.
16. Green LC, Wagner DA, Glogowski J, et al (1982). Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and [15N] nitrate in biological fluids. Anal Bio-chem, 126(1):131-138.
17. Choi SY, Lin SH, Ha TY, et al. (2005). Eval-uation of the estrogenic and antioxidant activity of some edible and medical plant. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 37(4):549-556.
18. Lee JH, Lee SR (1994). Analysis of phenolic substances content in Korean plant food. Chem Pham Bull, 26:310-316.
19. Choi CS, Song ES, Kim JS, et al. (2003). An-tioxidative Activities of Castanea Crenata Flos. Methanol Extracts. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 35:1216-1220.
20. Arnao MB (2000). Some methodological problems in the determination of antiox-idant activity using chromogen radicals: a practical case. Trend Food Sci Technol, 11(11):419-421.
21. Jeong JA, Kwon SH, Lee CH (2007). Screening for anti-oxidative activities of extracts from aerial and underground parts of some edible and medicinal ferns. Korean J Plant Resour, 20:185-192.
22. Ukeda H, Maeda S, Ishii T, et al. (1997). Spectrophotometric assay for superoxide dismutase based on tetrazolium salt 3’-1-(phenylamino)-carbonyl-3,4-tetrazolium]- bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzenesulfonic acid hydrate reduction by xanthine-xanthine oxidase. Anal Biochem, 251(2):206-209.
23. Kim JY, Jung KS, Jeong HG (2004). Sup-pressive effects of the kahweol and cafestol on cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages. FEBS Lett, 569(1-3):321-326.
24. Masferrer JL, Zweifel BS, Manning PT, et al (1994). Selective inhibition of inducible cyclooxygenase 2 in vivo is antiinflamma-tory and nonulcerogenic. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 91(8):3228-3232.
|Issue||Vol 48 No 11 (2019)|
|Anti-inflammatory Anti-oxidative Cyclooxygenase-2 Green coffee beans Inducible nitric oxide synthase|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|