Original Article

Social Reactions and Reasoned Pathways of High School Students and School Dropouts’ Inclination toward Smoking Behavior: Prototype/willingness Modelling via Generalized Structural Equation


Background: To investigate the determinants of smoking behavior among Iranian adolescents applying the Prototype/Willingness (P/W) Model.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered P/W model-based questionnaire was completed between 760 randomly selected adolescents (high school students and dropouts) in Hamadan, Iran, in 2015. Generalized structural equation modeling (GSEM) was applied to analyze data.

Results: Significant associations were found between subjective norms and positive attitudes toward smoking (P<0.001). The behavioral intention was also significantly related to the willingness and subjective norms (P<0.001). Prototype or risk image was not significantly related to the willingness among the dropout adolescents.

Conclusion: When social reaction and reasoned processes are modeled together, both may predict the smoking behavior. The high-risk perception and the high-risk image toward smoking behavior among the adolescents may originate from socio-cultural factors underlying the behavior. Further research is recommended to investigate the socio-cultural biases of the issue.


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IssueVol 47 No 9 (2018) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
School dropouts P/W model Smoke High school students Generalized structural equation modeling

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How to Cite
ASGHARI JAFARABADI M, NADRIAN H, ALLAHVERDIPOUR H. Social Reactions and Reasoned Pathways of High School Students and School Dropouts’ Inclination toward Smoking Behavior: Prototype/willingness Modelling via Generalized Structural Equation. Iran J Public Health. 2018;47(9):1353-1362.