Factors Related to the Attitude of North Korean Refugees Towards People with Mental Illness
AbstractAbstract Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the level of mental health knowledge among North Korean refugees residing in South Korea and to analyze the factors related to their attitude towards people with mental disorders. Methods: The survey was conducted on 150 people and the analysis included results from 138 participants in 2013. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to analyze the factors related to the attitude towards people with mental illness. Results: The education level attained in South Korea and the duration of stay in the South were effective factors associated with anti-authoritarianism. Age, marital status, education level in the North, and level of mental health knowledge were significant factors for benevolence. Time spent in South Korea and knowledge of mental health played a significant role in determining their attitude towards social restrictiveness (P=0.014). Conclusion: The knowledge of mental illness in refugees was associated with their attitude towards people with mental illness. This study suggests the need to educate refugees on mental illness to enhance their attitudes.
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2017). Global trends. Forced displacement in 2015.
Hollifield M, Warner TD, Lian N et al (2002). Measuring trauma and health sta-tus in refugees: a critical review. JAMA, 288 (5): 611-21.
Pumariega AJ, Rothe E, Pumariega JB (2005). Mental health of immigrants and refugees. Community Ment Health J, 41 (5): 581-97.
Mahony C, Humpage L, Baird N (2016). Aspirational Yet Precarious: New Zealand Refugee Settlement Policy's Compliance with International Human Rights Obliga-tions. Int J Migr Bord Stud, 2(3).
Bose PS (2014). Refugees in Vermont: mo-bility and acculturation in a new immi-grant destination. J Transp Geogr, 36: 151-59.
Logan JR, Zhang W, Alba RD (2002). Im-migrant enclaves and ethnic communities in New York and Los Angeles. Am Sociol Rev, 67(2): 299-322.
George U, Thomson MS, Chaze F, Guruge S (2015). Immigrant mental health, a pub-lic health issue: Looking back and mov-ing forward. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 12 (10): 13624-48.
Porter M, Haslam N (2005). Predisplace-ment and postdisplacement factors asso-ciated with mental health of refugees and internally displaced persons: a meta-analysis. JAMA, 294 (5): 602-12.
Lee S (2009). Korean government's policy on North Korean defectors in China: with the emphasis on the administration of Kim Dae-jung and Roh Moo-hyun. Korean J Int Relations, 49 (5): 251-71.
Kim JH (2011). A study on the mental health outcomes of North Korean male defectors: comparing with general Kore-an males and searching for health policy implications. J Korean Med Assoc, 54 (5): 537-48.
Yang KM, Hwang ST (2008). An initial study into the psychological adaptation of North Korean refugee adolescents in the first stages of their transition to life in South Korea. Stud Korean Youth, 49 (2): 333-58.
Ben-David A, Lavee Y (1994). Migration and marital distress: The case of Soviet immigrants. J Divorce Remarriage, 21 (3-4): 133-46.
Chung RCY (2001). Psychosocial adjust-ment of Cambodian refugee women: Implications for mental health counsel-ing. J Ment Health Couns, 23 (2): 115-26.
Eisikovits RA (2000). Gender differences in cross-cultural adaptation styles of immi-grant youths from the former USSR in Israel. Youth Soc, 31 (3): 310-31.
Eom T (2005). A strategy of the mental health for the integration between South and North Korea's residents. Unification Policy Stud, 14 (1): 297-324.
Park HR, Song JM, Lee HJ (2006). Middle school teachers’ knowledge of physical activity recommendations. Journal of Korean Physical Education Association for Girls and Women, 20 (4): 85-98.
Kim MH, Kim MS (2005). A study on the relationships between knowledge about osteoporosis and cognitive factors in middle-aged women. Korean J Women Health Nurs, 11 (1): 52-7.
Cho YA, Kim YH, You SE (2009). Predic-tors of mental health among North Ko-rean defectors residing in South Korea over 7 years. Korean J Counseling Psychothera-py, 21 (1): 329-48.
Taylor SM, Dear MJ (1981). Scaling com-munity attitudes toward the mentally ill. Schizophr Bull, 7(2): 225-40.
Lee J, Lee C, Hwang T et al (1996). Com-munity attitude toward the mentally ill in Suseo-Ilweon community. Bull Yong-In Psychiatr Inst, 3 (2): 188-202.
McGill CW, Falloon IR, Boyd JL, Wood-Siverio C (1983). Family educational inter-vention in the treatment of schizophre-nia. Hosp Community Psychiatry, 34 (10): 934-8.
Stuart G (1995). Actualising the psychiatric nurse’s role: professional performance and standards. Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing. Fifth edition. St Lou-is MO, Mosby.
Lim YM, Ahn YH (2000). Knowledge and coping of family caregivers with schizo-phrenic patients. J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs, 9 (2): 195-208.
Kim MJ, Jung SL (2002). The effect of fami-ly education program on the knowledge and the burden of schizophrenia patient’s family. J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs, 11 (3): 273-84.
Kim SJ, Park YS, Lee H, Park SM (2012). Current situation of psychiatry in North Korean: from the viewpoint of North Korean medical doctors. Korean J Psycho-som Med, 20 (1): 32-9.
Noh JW, Kwon YD, Yu S et al (2015). A study of mental health literacy among North Korean refugees in South Korea. J Prev Med Public Health, 48 (1): 62-71.
Sakong JK, Song CJ, Sohn IK (2000). A study on the health personnels attitudes toward the mentally ill. Dongguk J Nat Sci, 39: 217-36.
Zellweger K (2014). People with disabilities in a changing North Korea. Shorenstein APARC Working Paper Stanford, CA: Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University.
Lee SH. (2012). Development of psychiatric treatment model for North Korean de-fector. Seoul: National Medical Center.
Marshall GN, Berthold SM, Schell TL et al (2006). Rates and correlates of seeking mental health services among Cambodi-an refugees. Am J Public Health, 96 (10): 1829-35.
Neuner F, Schauer M, Klaschik C et al (2004). A comparison of narrative expo-sure therapy, supportive counseling, and psychoeducation for treating posttrau-matic stress disorder in an African refu-gee settlement. J Consult Clin Psychol, 72 (4): 579-87.