Review Article

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Iranian Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis


Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the major risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in different populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of MetS among Iranian population.

Methods: Thirty-four cross-sectional studies were analyzed with a sample of 83227 people. National and international English electronic databases (PubMed, Google scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scopus) and Persian language databases (SID, Medlib, Iran medex, Magiran, Medlib, and IranDoc) were used to search the articles published on MetS in Iranian population from Jan 2005 to May 2016. The MetS diagnosis was performed according to the ATP-III, NCEP/ATP-III, IDF and WHO criteria.

Results: The overall weighted prevalence of MetS was 31% (95% CI: 28-35). According to ATP III criteria, total and gender-stratified prevalence of MetS in women and men were 29% (95% CI: 22-36), 37% (95% CI: 26-48) and 29% (95% CI: 23-36), respectively. Total prevalence of MetS based on NCEP/ATP III criteria was 29% (95% CI: 24-35) that the prevalence was 24% (95% CI: 18-30) and 35% (95% CI: 25-44) in men and women, respectively. According to the IDF and WHO criteria, total prevalence of MetS were 38% (95% CI: 32-43) and 30% (95% CI: 7-53), respectively.

Conclusion: The findings demonstrate an emerging high prevalence of MetS in total and in particular among Iranian women population. Therefore, to minimize the risk of cardiovascular events in Iranian population, screening and early detection of risk factors for MetS are required.



Duc Son LNT, Kunii D, Hung NT, Sakai T, Yamamoto S (2005). The metabolic syndrome: prevalence and risk factors in the urban population of Ho Chi Minh City. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 67(3): 243-50.

Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S, Raymond JL, Marie V (2012). Krause's Food & the Nutrition Care Process. 13th ed. Elsevier Saunders.

Ziccardi P, Nappo F, Giugliano G et al (2002). Reduction of inflammatory cytokine concentrations and improvement of endothelial functions in obese women after weight loss over one year. Circulation, 105(7): 804-9.

Ghaffari M-A, Payami S-A, Payami SP, Ashtary-Larky D, Nikzamir A, Mohammadzadeh G (2016). Evaluation of Insulin Resistance Indices in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Treated with Different Anti-Diabetic Drugs. Open J Endocr Metab Dis, 6(02): 95-101.

Kim MH, Kim MK, Choi BY, Shin YJ (2004). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its association with Cardiovascular Disease in Korea. J Korean Med Sci, 19(2): 195-201.

Keller KB, Lemberg L (2003). Obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Am J Crit Care, 12(2):167-70.

Alberti G, Zimmet P, Shaw J, Grundy SM (2006). IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome. International Diabetes Federation. Available from:

Kassi E, Pervanidou P, Kaltsas G, Chrousos G (2011). Metabolic syndrome: definitions and controversies. BMC Med, 9: 48.

Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR et al (2005). Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation, 112(17): 2735-52.

Geffken DF, Cushman M, Burke GL, Polak JF, Sakkinen PA, Tracy RP (2001). Association between physical activity and markers of inflammation in a healthy elderly population. Am J Epidemiol, 153(3): 242-50.

Womack CJ, Ivey FM, Gardner AW, Macko RF (2001). Fibrinolytic response to acute exercise in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 33(2): 214-9.

Gaeini A, Sheykh Aleslami Vatani D et al (2008). Effect of endurance training and a detraining period on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in wistar rats. Journal of Movement Science & Sports, 6(11): pp. 51-63.

Brumpton BM, Camargo CA Jr, Romundstad PR, Langhammer A, Chen Y, Mai XM (2013). Metabolic syndrome and incidence of asthma in adults: the HUNT study. Eur Respir J, 42(6):1495-502.

Braun S, Bitton-Worms K, LeRoith D (2011). The Link between the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer. Int J Biol Sci, 7(7):1003-15.

Salem Z, Vazirinejad R (2007). Prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome among adolesent girls in Rafsanjan, 2007. Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism, 7(2): 205-13.

Sharifi F, Mousavinasab S, Saeini M, Dinmohammadi M (2009). Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in an Adult Urban Population of the West of Iran. Exp Diabetes Res, 2009:136501.

Shahbazian H, Latifi SM, Jalali MT, et al (2013). Metabolic syndrome and its correlated factors in an urban population in South West of Iran. J Diabetes Metab Disord,12:11.

Salem Z, Vazirinejad R (2010). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome components among 7─11 year-old children in Rafsanjan, 2008. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology, 5(2): 63-71.

Saberi H, Moraveji A, Parastouie K (2009). Metabolic syndrome among professional bus and truck drivers in Kashan, 2008. Iranian South Medical Journal, 12(2):126-32 (In persian).

Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, PRISMA Group (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med, 151(4):264-9.

Higgins JP, Thompson SG (2002). Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med, 21(11):1539-58.

Cochran WG (1954). The combination of estimates from different experiments. Biometrics, 10(1):101-29.

Jalalzadeh M, Mohammadi R, Mirzamohammadi F, Ghadiani MH (2011). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a hemodialysis population. Iran J Kidney Dis, 5(4): 248-54.

Gharipour M, Kelishadi R, Toghianifar N et al (2011). Socioeconomic Disparities and Smoking Habits in Metabolic Syndrome: Evidence from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Iran Red Crescent Med J,13(8):537-43.

Regions of Iran [Internet]. Wikipedia [cited 28 Jun 2016]. Available from:

Laura J (2016). Metabolic syndrome.

Gundogan K, Bayram F, Capak M et al (2009). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Mediterranean region of Turkey: evaluation of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and dyslipidemia. Metab Syndr Relat Disord, 7(5):pp. 427-34.

Hydrie MZ, Shera AS, Fawwad A, Basit A, Hussain A (2009). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in urban Pakistan (Karachi): comparison of newly proposed International Diabetes Federation and modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Metab Syndr Relat Disord, 7(2): 119-24.

Wagner A, Dallongeville J, Haas B et al (2012). Sedentary behaviour, physical activity and dietary patterns are independently associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Metab, 38(5): 428–35.

Beltrán-Sánchez H, Harhay MO, Harhay MM, McElligott S ( 2013). Prevalence and Trends of Metabolic Syndrome in the Adult U.S. Population, 1999–2010. J Am Coll Cardiol, 62(8): 697-703.

Fonseca MJ, Gaio R, Lopes C, Santos AC (2012). Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in a sample of Portuguese adults. Nutr J, 11: 64.

Corbaton-Anchuelo A, Martinez-Larrad MT, Fernandez-Perez C et al (2013). Metabolic syndrome, adiponectin, and cardiovascular risk in Spain (the Segovia study): impact of consensus societies criteria. Metab Syndr Relat Disord, 11(5): 309-18.

Giampaoli S, Stamler J, Donfrancesco C et al (2009). The metabolic syndrome: a critical appraisal based on the CUORE epidemiologic study. Prev Med, 48(6): 525–31.

Belfki H, Ben Ali S, Aounallah-Skhiri H et al (2013). Prevalence and determinants of the metabolic syndrome among Tunisian adults: results of the Transition and Health Impact in North Africa (TAHINA) project. Public Health Nutr, 16(4): 582–90.

Wang GR, Li L, Pan YH et al. (2013). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among urban community residents in China. BMC Public Health, 13:599.

Pinzon JB, Serrano NC, Diaz LA et al (2007). Impact of the new definitions in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in an adult population at Bucaramanga, Colombia. Biomedica, 27(2):172–9.

Hajian-Tilaki K, Heidari B, Firouzjahi A, Bagherzadeh M, Hajian-Tilaki A, Halalkhor S (2014). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the association with socio-demographic characteristics and physical activity in urban population of Iranian adults: a population-based study. Diabetes Metab Syndr, 8(3):170-6.

Rathmann W, Haastert B, Icks A et al (2006). Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in the Elderly Population According to IDF, WHO, and NCEP Definitions and Associations With C-Reactive Protein: the KORA Survey 2000. Diabetes Care, 29(2): 461.

Deepa M, Farooq S, Datta M, Deepa R, Mohan V (2007). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using WHO, ATPIII and IDF definitions in Asian Indians: the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES- 34). Diabetes Metab Res Rev, 23(2):127-34.

Obeidat A, Ahmad MN, Haddad FH, Azzeh FS (2015). Alarming high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Jordanian adults. Pak J Med Sci, 31(6): 1377–82.

Ford ES (2005). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation among adults in the U.S. Diabetes Care, 28(11): pp. 2745-9.

Zabetian A, Hadaegh F, Azizi F (2007). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Iranian adult population, concordance between the IDF with the ATPIII and the WHO definitions. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 77(2): 251–7.

Chuengsamarn S, Rattanamongkoulgul S, Villarroel A (2010). Association between metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease, using different criteria and stratified by sex. Int J Diabetes Mellit, 2(2): 78-82.

Kaur J (2014). A Comprehensive Review on Metabolic Syndrome. Cardiol Res Pract, Volume 2014 (2014): p. 21.

Mabry RM, Reeves MM, Eakin EG, Owen N (2010). Gender differences in prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: a systematic review. Diabet Med, 27(5): 593-7.

Ko GT, Cockram CS, Chow CC et al (2006). Metabolic syndrome by the international diabetes federation definition in Hong Kong Chinese. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 73(1): 58-64.

Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ (2005). The metabolic syndrome. Lancet, 365(9468): 1415-28.

Hajian-Tilaki KO, Heidari B (2007). Prevalence of obesity, central obesity and the associated factors in urban population aged 20-70 years, in the north of Iran: a population-based study and regression approach. Obes Rev, 8(1): 3-10.

Rashidi H, Payami SP, Latifi SM et al (2014). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its correlated factors among children and adolescents of Ahvaz aged 10 – 19. J Diabetes Metab Disord, 13: 53.

Delavar MA, Lye M-S, Khor GL et al (2009). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among middle aged women in Babol, Iran. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 40(3): 612-28.

Azizi F, Salehi P, Etemadi A, Zahedi Asl S (2003). Preavalence of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 61(1): 29-37.

Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH (2002). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA, 287(3): 356-9.

Jalali R, Vasheghani M, Dabbaghmanesh M, Ranjbar Omrani G (2009). Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Adults in a Rural Area. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 11(4) :405-14 (In Persian).

Sadrbafoghi SM , Salari M , Rafiee M et al (2006). Prevalence and criteria of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Yazd Healthy Heart Project. Tehran Univ Med J, 64 (10): 90-6.

Ghergherechi R, Razzaghy Azar M (2010). Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children and Adolescents. Med J Tabriz Univ Med Sci Health Serv, 32(3): 57-61 (In Persian).

Javadi H, Hashemipour S, Abbasi M, Javadi A (2014). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in over 24 years old population of Qazvin (2012). Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, 18(3): 7-11 (In Persian).

Marjani A, Mojerloo M (2011). The metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic subjects in Gorgan, Iran. J Pak Med Assoc, 61(5): 458-61.

Jouyandeh Z, Nayebzadeh F, Qorbani M, Asadi M (2013). Metabolic syndrome and menopause. J Diabetes Metab Disord, 12(1): p. 1.

Hadaegh F, Zabetian A, Tohidi M, Ghasemi A, Sheikholeslami F, Azizi F (2009). Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome by the Adult Treatment Panel III, International Diabetes Federation, and World Health Organization Definitions and their Association with Coronary Heart Disease in an Elderly Iranian Population. Ann Acad Med Singapore, 38(2):142-9.

Maharlouei N, Bellissimo N, Ahmadi SM, Lankarani KB (2013). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in pre- and postmenopausal Iranian women. Climacteric, 16(5): 561–7.

Mardani M, Rafiee E, Ebrahimzadeh F, Baba H, Balavar S, Ali Mohammadi M (2015). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among students of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. Medical Journal of Mashad University of Medical Sciences, 57(8): 918-25 (In persian).

Sarrafzadegan N, Gharipour M, Ramezani MA et al (2011). Metabolic syndrome and health-related quality of life in Iranian population. J Res Med Sci, 16(3): 254-61.

Kaykhaei M, Hashemi M, Narouie B et al (2012). Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Population from Zahedan, Southeast Iran. Iran J Public Health, 41(2): 70-6.

Fakhrzadeh H, Ebrahim Pour R, Nouri M et al (2004). Evaluation of prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in inhabitants of Tehran university of medical sciences population lab. IJDLD, 3: 71-80.

Foroozanfar Z, Najafipour H, Khanjani N, Bahrampour A, Ebrahimi H (2015). The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome According to Different Criteria and its Associated Factors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Kerman, Iran. Iran J Med Sci, 40(6): pp. 522-5.

Keykha M, Janghorbani M, Amini M (2013). Prevalence and Risk Factors of Diabetes, Pre-Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Type II Diabetes. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, 20(2): 115-28.

Marjani A, Hezarkhani S, Shahini N (2012). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among fars ethnic women in North East of Iran. World Journal of Medical Sciences, 7(1): 17-22.

Esmailnasab N, Moradi G, Delaveri A (2012). Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome. Iran J Public Health, 41(7): 77-85.

Marjani A, Moghasemi S (2012). The Metabolic Syndrome among Postmenopausal Women in Gorgan. Int J Endocrinol, 2012:953627.

Ostovaneh M, Zamani F, Sharafkhah M et al (2014). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Amol and Zahedan, Iran: a population based study. Arch Iran Med,17(7):477-82.

Ghorbani R, Abtahi naeini B, Eskandarian R, Rashidy-Pour A, Khamseh ME, Malek M. (2012). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to ATPIII and IDF criteria in the Iranian population. Koomesh, 14(1): 65-75.

Tabatabaie AH, Shafiekhani M, Nasihatkon AA et al (2015). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult population in Shiraz, southern Iran. Diabetes Metab Syndr, 9(3): 153-6.

Mahjoub S, Haji Ahmadi M, Faramarzi M, Ghorbani H, Moazezi Z (2012). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to the Iranian Committee of Obesity and ATP III criteria in Babol, North of Iran. Caspian J Intern Med, 3(2): 410-6.

Moini A, Javanmard F, Eslami B, Aletaha N (2012). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovarian syndrome women in a hospital of Tehran. Iran J Reprod Med, 10(2): 127-30.

Ebrahimi-Mameghani M, Naimi AR F, Nourmohammadi M, Azabdaftari N (2011). Prevalence of Metabolic syndrome in Tabriz city firefighters. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 15(4): 296-302 (In Persian).

Mohebbi I, Saadat S, Aghassi M, Shekari M, Matinkhah M, Sehat S (2012). Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Professional Drivers: Results from a Population Based Study of 12,138 Men. Plos One, 7(2): e31790

IssueVol 46 No 4 (2017) QRcode
SectionReview Article(s)
Metabolic syndrome Prevalence Meta-analysis Systematic review Iran

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
DALVAND S, NIKSIMA SH, MESHKANI R, GHANEI GHESHLAGH R, SADEGH-NEJADI S, KOOTI W, PARIZAD N, ZAHEDNEZHAD H, AFRISHAM R. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Iranian Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Iran J Public Health. 2017;46(4):456-467.