Implications of Dual Practice among Health Workers: A Systematic Review

  • Javad MOGHRI Dept. of Management Sciences and Health Economics, School of Health, Management & Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
  • Arash RASHIDIAN Dept. of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad ARAB Dept. of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Ali AKBARI SARI Dept. of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Dual practice, Health workers, Implications, Consequences


Background: Mixed health care systems to work simultaneously on both public and private facilities, is common today. This phenomenon referred to as dual practice (DP), has potential implications for access, quality, cost and equity of health services. This paper aimed to review systematically studies that assess the implications of DP among health workers.

Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane library were searched for obtaining published literature between Feb 1990 and May 2014. Google and Google Scholars, organizational websites, and reference lists of relevant papers searched to get grey literature. Only studies concentrated on consequences and impacts of DP among health professionals and conducted using "randomized controlled trials", "non-randomized controlled trials", "controlled before and after studies", or "interrupted time series" were eligible for inclusion.

Results: From 3242 records, we focused on 19 studies, which aimed to assess effects and impacts of dual practice. After that, the current understanding of DP positive and negative implications was categorized and discussed based on two perspectives.

Conclusion: There has been a propensity to over-reliance on theoretical methods in predicting the implications of this phenomenon. Almost all of the mentioned implications are based on theoretical predictions undermined in the broader literature. Furthermore, assessing the current literature showed positive and negative impacts of DP on different parts of the health system and various dimensions of service delivery. These implications are contexted specific and may vary from system to system.




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How to Cite
MOGHRI J, RASHIDIAN A, ARAB M, AKBARI SARI A. Implications of Dual Practice among Health Workers: A Systematic Review. Iran J Public Health. 46(2):153-164.
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