Original Article

Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues


Background: The objective of this study was to determine the residual concentrations of ethion and imidacloprid in cucumbers grown in greenhouse. The effect of some simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were also studied.

Methods: Ten active greenhouses that produce cucumber were randomly selected. Ethion and imidacloprid as the most widely used pesticides were measured in cucumber samples of studied greenhouses. Moreover, the effect of storing, washing, and peeling as simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were investigated.

Results: One hour after pesticide application; the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of ethion and imidacloprid were higher than that of Codex standard level. One day after pesticide application, the levels of pesticides were decreased about 35 and 31% for ethion and imidacloprid, respectively, which still were higher than the MRL. Washing procedure led to about 51 and 42.5% loss in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. Peeling procedure also led to highest loss of 93.4 and 63.7% in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. The recovery for both target analytes was in the range between 88 and 102%.

Conclusion: The residue values in collected samples one hour after pesticides application were higher than standard value. The storing, washing, and peeling procedures lead to the decrease of pesticide residues in greenhouse cucumbers. Among them, the peeling procedure has the greatest impact on residual reduction. Therefore, these procedures can be used as simple and effective processing techniques for reducing and removing pesticides from greenhouse products before their consumption. 

Shokrzadeh M, Saberyan M, Saeedi Saravi S (2008). Assessment of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in 10 samples of Iranian and foreign consumed tea leaves and dissolved beverages. Toxicol Environ Chem, 90(5):879-83.

Carvalho FP (2006). Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety. Environ Sci Policy, 9(7-8):685-92.

Katagi T (2010). Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and metabolism of pesticides in aquatic organisms. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology: Springer. p. 1-132.

Carriger JF, Rand GM (2008). Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in surface waters in and adjacent to the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks: II. Probabilistic analyses. Ecotoxicology, 17(7):680-96.

Karalliedde L, Senanayake N (1989). Organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. Br J Anaesth, 63(6):736-50.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Pesticides: Reregistration, Ethion IRED Facts. EPA Web Site; 2012; Available from ; https://archive.epa.gov/pesticides/reregistration/web/html/ethion_red.html.

Abdel-Gawad H, Mahdy F, Hashad A, Elgemeie GH (2014). Fate of 14C-Ethion Insecticide in the Presence of Deltamethrin and Dimilin Pesticides in Cotton Seeds and Oils, Removal of Ethion Residues in Oils, and Bioavailability of Its Bound Residues to Experimental Animals. J Agric Food Chem, 62(51):12287-93.

Management and Planning Organization of Hamedan province. Yearly statistical Report about Hamedan province; 2014.

Hassanzadeh N, Esmaili Sari A, Bahramifar N (2012). Dissipation of imidacloprid in greenhouse cucumbers at single and double dosages spraying. J Agr Sci Tech, 14(3):557-64.

Maienfisch P, Angst M, Brandl F, Fischer W, Hofer D, Kayser H, et al. (2001). Chemistry and biology of thiamethoxam: a second generation neonicotinoid. Pest Manag Sci, 57(10):906-13.

Maienfisch P, Huerlimann H, Rindlisbacher A, Gsell L, Dettwiler H, Haettenschwiler J, et al. (2001). The discovery of thiamethoxam: a second‐generation neonicotinoid. Pest Manag Sci, 57(2):165-76.

Elbert A, Nauen R, Leicht W. Imidacloprid, a novel chloronicotinyl insecticide: biological activity and agricultural importance. Insecticides with novel modes of action: Springer; 1998. p. 50-73.

Wiesner P, Kayser H (2000). Characterization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from the insects Aphis craccivora, Myzus persicae, and Locusta migratoria by radioligand binding assays: relation to thiamethoxam action. J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 14(4):221-30.

Kunkel BA, Held DW, Potter DA (2001). Lethal and sublethal effects of bendiocarb, halofenozide, and imidacloprid on Harpalus pennsylvanicus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) following different modes of exposure in turfgrass. J Econ Entomol, 94(1):60-7.

Hemingway J, Small G, Monro A, Sawyer B, Asap H (1992). Insecticide resistance gene frequencies in Anopheles sacharovi populations of the Cukurova plain, Adana Province, Turkey. Med Vet Entomol, 6(4):342-8.

Singh G, Singh B, Battu R, Jyot G, Joia BS (2007). Persistence of ethion residues on cucumber, Cucumis sativus (Linn.) using gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detector. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 79(4):437-9.

Bogialli S, Di Corcia A (2007). Matrix solid-phase dispersion as a valuable tool for extracting contaminants from foodstuffs. J Biochem Biophys Methods, 70(2):163-79.

Chavarri MJ, Herrera A, Arino A (2004). Pesticide residues in field‐sprayed and processed fruits and vegetables. J Sci Food Agr, 84(10):1253-9.

Chavarri MJ, Herrera A, Ariño A (2005). The decrease in pesticides in fruit and vegetables during commercial processing. Int J Food Sci Tech, 40(2):205-11.

Ramezani MK, Shahriari D (2015). Dissipation behaviour, processing factors and risk assessment for metalaxyl in greenhouse‐grown cucumber. Pest Manag Sci, 71(4):579-83.

Fenoll J, Ruiz E, Hellín P, Lacasa A, Flores P (2009). Dissipation rates of insecticides and fungicides in peppers grown in greenhouse and under cold storage conditions. Food Chem, 113(2):727-32.

Keikotlhaile BM, Spanoghe P, Steurbaut W (2010). Effects of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: a meta-analysis approach. Food Chem Toxicol., 48(1):1-6.

Chavarri MJ, Herrera A, Ariño A (2004). Pesticide residues in field-sprayed and processed fruits and vegetables. J Sci Food Agr, 84(10):1253-9.

Krol WJ, Arsenault TL, Pylypiw HM, Incorvia Mattina MJ (2000). Reduction of pesticide residues on produce by rinsing. J Agric Food Chem, 48(10):4666-70.

Xia H, Ma X (2006). Phytoremediation of ethion by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from water. Bioresour Technol, 97(8):1050-4.

Nguyen TD, Yun MY, Lee GH (2009). Multiresidue Method for the Determination of 118 Pesticides in Vegetable Juice by Gas Chromatography− Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography− Tandem Mass Spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem, 57(21):10095-101.

Nasr HM, Abbassy MA, Marzouk MA, Mansy AS. Pollution Effects & Control. 2014.

Okihashi M, Kitagawa Y, Akutsu K, Obana H, Tanaka Y (2005). Rapid method for the determination of 180 pesticide residues in foods by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and flame photometric detection. J Pest Sci, 30(4):368-77.

Kaushik G, Satya S, Naik S (2009). Food processing a tool to pesticide residue dissipation–A review. Food Res Int, 42(1):26-40.

Barceló D (1997). Trace Determination of Pesticides and their Degradation Products in Water. Elsevier.

Ohkawa H, Miyagawa H, Lee PW (2007). Pesticide chemistry: crop protection, public health, environmental safety. John Wiley & Sons.

Abou-Arab A (1999). Behavior of pesticides in tomatoes during commercial and home preparation. Food Chem, 65(4):509-14.

IssueVol 45 No 11 (2016) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
Ethion Imidacloprid Greenhouse Cucumber Residuals

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
LEILI M, PIRMOGHANI A, SAMADI MT, SHOKOOHI R, ROSHANAEI G, POORMOHAMMADI A. Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues. Iran J Public Health. 2016;45(11):1481-1490.