Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplement on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Background: Diabetes is a major cause of death. Oxidative stress mainly caused by hyperglycemia is the primary reason of related complications. Omega-3 fatty acids are prescribed in diabetes but the effect on antioxidant defense is controversial. This study investigated effects of omega-3 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity in type 2 diabetic patients.
Methods: A randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial was performed on 90 type2 diabetic patients. The treatment group took, daily, three capsules of omega-3 for two mo, which totally provided 2714mg omega-3 (EPA=1548 mg, DHA=828 mg and 338 mg of other omega=3 fatty acids). Placebo contained 2100 mg sunflower oil (12% SFA, 65% linoleic acid, 23% MUFA), which is the main oil used in the study population. Food intakes, anthropometric and demographic characteristics, and therapeutic regimen data were recorded before and after the intervention. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after the intervention to measure super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity in erythrocytes.
Results: A total of 81 subjects completed the study. Two study groups were similar as regards duration of diabetes, age and the enzymes at baseline. Energy and macro- and micronutrients intakes, weight and hypoglycemic agent consumption were similar in the two groups at baseline and did not change. Supplementation had no effect on antioxidant enzyme status. Glycated hemoglobin showed a significant reduction by supplementation.
Conclusion: Daily supplementation of 2714 mg mega-3 for two mo results in a significant reduction in HbA1c level in type2 diabetic patients with no effects on antioxidant enzymes activity.
Bauer UE, Briss PA, Goodman RA, Bowman BA (2014). Prevention of chronic disease in the 21st century: elimination of the leading preventable causes of premature death and disability in the USA. Lancet, 384 (9937): 45-52.
Yach D, Hawkes C, Gould CL, Hofman KJ (2004). The global burden of chronic diseases: overcoming impediments to prevention and control. JAMA, 291(21): 2616-2622.
Nair SP, Shah N, Shah R (2012). Alteration in enzymatic antioxidant defense in diabetes mellitus. Biomed Res, 23 (3): 402-404.
Stephens JW, Khanolkar MP, Bain SC (2009). The biological relevance and measurement of plasma markers of oxidative stress in diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis, 202(2): 321-329.
Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ (2010). Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 87(1):4-14.
Carocho M, Ferreira IC (2013). A review on antioxidants, prooxidants and related controversy: Natural and synthetic compounds, screening and analysis methodologies and future perspectives. Food Chem Toxicol, 51: 15-25.
Maritim A, Sanders R, Watkins RJ (2003). Diabetes, oxidative stress, and antioxidants: a review. J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 17(1): 24-38.
Kuppusamy U, Indran M, Rokiah P (2005). Glycaemic control in relation to xanthine oxidase and antioxidant indices in Malaysian Type 2 diabetes patients. Diabetic Med, 22 (10): 1343-1346.
Hu FB, Cho E, Rexrode KM, Albert CM, Manson JE (2003). Fish and long-chain ω-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease and total mortality in diabetic women. Circulation, 107 (14): 1852-1857.
Carpentier YA, Portois L, Malaisse WJ (2006). n− 3 Fatty acids and the metabolic syndrome. AJCN, 83 (6): 1499S -1504S.
Zheng T, Zhao J, Wang Y, Liu W, Wang Z, Shang Y, Zhang W, Zhang Y, Zhong M (2014). The limited effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk in patients with impaired glucose metabolism: A meta-analysis. Clin Biochem, 47 (6): 369-377.
Poudyal H, Panchal SK, Diwan V, Brown L (2011). Omega-3 fatty acids and metabolic syndrome: effects and emerging mechanisms of action. Prog Lipid Res, 50 (4): 372-387.
Shidfar F, Keshavarz A, Hosseyni S, Ameri A, Yarahmadi S (2008). Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on serum lipids, apolipoproteins and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes patients. East Mediterr Health J, 14 (2): 305-13.
Nettleton JA, Katz R (2005). n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in type 2 diabetes: a review. J Am Diet Assoc, 105 (3): 428-440.
Houshiarrad A, Esmaeili M (2012).consumption pattern of edible fats and oils among households in Tehran 2020 National Nutrition And Food Technology Research Institute. Shahid Beheshti University Of Medical Sciences And Health Services (unpublished work).
Abei H (1984). Catalase invitro. Meth Enzymol, 105: 121-126.
Paglia DE, Valentine WN (1967). Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med, 70 (1): 158-169.
Goldberg D, Spooner R (1983). Glutathione reductase. Methods of enzymatic analysis, 3: 258-265.
Kusano C, Ferrari B (2008). Total antioxidant capacity: a biomarker in biomedical and nutritional studies. J Cell Mol Biol, 7: 1-15.
Toorang F, Djazayeri A, Jalali M, Eshraghian M, Farvid M, Pooya S (2008). The effect of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on HbA1c, total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in type 2 diabetic patients. Iran J Food Sci Tech, 3 (1): 1-8.
Mozaffarian D, Abdollahi M, Campos H, Houshiarrad A, Willett W (2007). Consumption of trans fats and estimated effects on coronary heart disease in Iran. Eur J Clin Nutr, 61(8): 1004-1010.
Fakher S, Djalali M, Tabei S, Zeraati H, Javadi E, Sadeghi M, Mostafavi E, Fatehi F (2007). Effect of vitamins A, E, C and Omega-3 fatty acids on lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Iran J Public Health, 36(2): 58-63.
Taheri E, Djalali M, Saedisomeolia A, Moghadam AM, Djazayeri A, Qorbani M (2012). The relationship between the activates of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells and body mass index in Iranian type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects. J Diabetes Metab Disord, 11(1): 3-8.
Merzouk S, Hichami A, Madani S, Merzouk H, Berrouiguet A, Prost J, Moutairou K, Chabane-Sari N, Khan N (2003). Antioxidant status and levels of different vitamins determined by high performance liquid chromatography in diabetic subjects with multiple complications. Gen Physiol Biophys, 22 (1): 15-28.
Manco M, Calvani M, Mingrone G (2004). Effects of dietary fatty acids on insulin sensitivity and secretion. Diabetes Obes Metab, 6 (6): 402-413.
Sarbolouki S, Djalali M, Dorosty A, Djazayery S, Eshraghian M, Ebadi S, Hashemi S (2010). Effects of EPA and vitamin E on serum enzymatic antioxidants and peroxidation indices in patients with type II Diabetes Mellitus. Iran J Public Health, 39 (3): 82-91.
De Luis D, Conde R, Aller R, Izaola O, González Sagrado M, Perez Castrillón J, Dueñas A, Romero E (2009). Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertriglyceridemia: an open study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 13(1) : 51-55.
Tricot S, Mimouni V, Rompion S, Froger C, Lacroix P, Roux S, Ulmann L (2010). No altered blood pressure and serum markers of oxidative stress after a long time dietary fish oil in the genetically 9 month-old type-2 diabetes Zucker rat. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 83(4): 211-218.
Ghiasvand R, Djalali M, Djazayery S, Keshavarz S, Hosseini M, Askari G, Jani N, Fardad N, Fatehi F (2010). Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and vitamin E on the blood levels of inflammatory markers, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation in Iranian Basketball Players. Iran J Public Health, 39(1): 15–21.
Pooya S, Jalali MD, Jazayery AD, Saedisomeolia A, Eshraghian MR, Toorang F (2010). The efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma homocysteine and malondialdehyde levels of type 2 diabetic patients. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 20 (5): 326-331.
|Issue||Vol 45 No 3 (2016)|
|Type 2 diabetes Omega-3 supplement Antioxidant enzymes|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|