Effect of Periodontal Disease on Preeclampsia


Background:  A  lot  of  studies  have  shown  periodontal  diseases  as  a  risk  factor  for  adverse  pregnancy  out­comes. The  as­sociation  between  periodontitis  and  preeclampsia  has  been  studied  recently  with  contro­versy. Considering  the  importance  of  preventing  preeclampsia  as  a  dangerous  and  life-threatening  disease  in  pregnant  women,  the  pre­sent  study  was  carried  out. 
Methods:  Two  hundred  and  ten  pregnant  women  participated  in  this  case-control  study  (105  controls  &  105  cases)  during  years  2007  and  2008.  Preeclamptic  cases  were  defined  as  blood  pressure  ≥140/90mmHg  and  protein­uria  +1.  Control  group  were  pregnant  women  with  normal  blood  pressure  with­out  proteinuria.  Both groups were examined during 48 hours after child delivery. Plaque  Index  (PLI), Pocket  Depth  (PD),  Clinical  Attachment  Level  (CAL),  Bleeding  On  Probing  (BOP),  Gingival  Recession  (GR)  were  measured  on  all  teeth  except  for  third  molars  and  recorded  as  periodontal  examination. Data was ana­lyzed using t-test, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U statistical tests.
Results:  There  was  no  significant  difference  between  the  two  study  groups  for  PD. CAL,  GR,  BOP  signifi­cantly  in­creased  in  the  case  group  (P< 0.02).  This  study  showed  that  preeclamptic  cases  were  more  likely  to  develop  perio­dontal  disease  (P< 0.0001).  Eighty  three  percent  of  the  control  group  and  95%  of  the  case  group  had  perio­dontal  disease  (P< 0.005)  which  had  shown  that  preeclamptic  cases  were  4.1  times  more  likely  to  have  periodontal  disease (OR= 4.1).
Conclusion: Preeclamptic cases significantly  had  higher  attachment  loss  and  gingival  recession  than  the  con­trol  group.

IssueVol 40 No 3 (2011) QRcode
Periodontal disease Preeclampsia Pregnancy

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How to Cite
Sayar F, Sadat Hoseini M, Abbaspour S. Effect of Periodontal Disease on Preeclampsia. Iran J Public Health. 1;40(3):122-127.