Review Article

Cervical Cancer Prevention, Its Challenges and Solutions in Iran and Worldwide: A Systematic Review


Background: Widespread use of screening in high-income countries has led to significant reductions in mortality from cervical cancer. However, in Iran, the main reason for the late diagnosis of cervical cancer was the failure to perform a Pap smear (Papanicolaou).  We aimed to investigate the status of cervical cancer prevention and its challenges and solutions in Iran.

Method: We conducted a systematic review of literature published from 1974 to 2021 in the electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar, and retrieved all English-language articles. Following the application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, full-text articles were identified and evaluated for eligibility. Finally, these publications were analyzed as part of the synthesis.

Results: Lower social-economic level, inadequate knowledge of screening tests and health centers for Pap test performance leading to worse outcomes such as lower screening participation or coverage.

Conclusion: By addressing these challenges through increasing education, increasing service accessibility, expanding screening programs, improving public awareness, improving insurance coverage, and establishing a control protocol for follow-up, it is possible to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality.

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IssueVol 52 No 11 (2023) QRcode
SectionReview Article(s)
Cervical cancer Prevention Challenges Systematic review Iran

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Pirani N, Jafari M, Bagherzadeh R, Keikhosravi M, Pirani H. Cervical Cancer Prevention, Its Challenges and Solutions in Iran and Worldwide: A Systematic Review. Iran J Public Health. 2023;52(11):2313-2324.