Original Article

Early Menopause and Risk of Fractures–A Preventable Gap


Background: Osteoporosis is a chronic disease that results in microarchitectural changes to the bone, thereby reducing its density and increasing the risk of fractures. This retrospective cross-sectional study aimed to examine the link between the risk of major osteoporotic fractures and hip fractures with the age of menopause onset, as well as the impact of menopause duration on fracture incidence.

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the Special Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Novi Sad, Serbia. The data required for meeting the study objectives were obtained from patients’ medical records spanning the 2015-2018 period. The sample for the study comprised of 985 postmenopausal women aged ≥ 50 yr who underwent bone mineral densitometry examination and received a FRAX score for major osteoporotic fractures and hip fractures with and without bone mineral density. The obtained FRAX scores were compared across the subjects with respect to the age of menopause onset and menopause duration.

Results: The group that entered into menopause before the age of 45 had a high risk of hip fracture (OR: 1,652; 95% CI: 1,138 - 2,399; P<.01) and a higher mean FRAX score for hip fracture compared to women in whom menopause started after the age of 45 (Me=1.60 vs. 1.30, P<.004). FRAX scores were also correlated with menopause duration, and the difference between the groups with the longest (over 20 yr) and the shortest (1–10 yr) duration was statistically significant at P<.001.

Conclusion: As menopause duration could contribute to the prediction of fracture risk, its inclusion in the FRAX algorithm should be considered, while also taking into account the age of menopause onset.


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IssueVol 52 No 3 (2023) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v52i3.12136
Menopause Duration of menopause Fracture risk assessment tool Osteoporosis Fracture risk

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How to Cite
Minakovic I, Zvekic-Svorcan J, Jankovic T, Vuksanovic M, Mikic D, Boskovic K. Early Menopause and Risk of Fractures–A Preventable Gap. Iran J Public Health. 2023;52(3):534-541.