Review Article

Association between Thyroid Disease and Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection: A Meta-Analysis


Background: COVID-19 has resulted in an emerging respiratory infection with a pandemical diffusion since December 2019. We aimed to elucidate whether the presence of thyroid disease might increase the risk of severe COVID-19 infection.

Methods: Studies reporting seriously ill in COVID-19 patients with and without thyroid disease combined were searched and 11 relevant studies were subjected to our analysis, and pooled odds ratios (ORs) together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using STATA and Review Manager Software.

Results: In total, 2,995 COVID-19 patients were included in this study. The pooled ORs were calculated using a fixed-effects model according to the heterogeneity. The pooled results revealed that thyroid disease was associated with severe COVID-19 infection in patients (OR = 2.14, 95 % CI: 1.23–3.72, P = 0.007). In the subgroup analysis by type of thyroid disease, hypothyroidism was positively associated with risks of severe COVID-19 infection (OR = 4.78, 95 % CI: 1.59–14.36, P = 0.005), however, no obvious difference was found in the risk regarding the severe COVID-19 infection amongst hyperthyroidism or unclassified thyroid disease. In addition, subgroup analysis stratified by ethnic groups demonstrated that thyroid disease was linked to the risks of severe COVID-19 infection in Asian patients (OR = 2.41, 95 % CI: 1.30–4.48, P = 0.005) rather than non-Asian (OR = 1.31, 95 % CI: 0.35–4.87, P = 0.684).

Conclusion: This study indicates a correlation between thyroid disease and severe COVID-19 infection.

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IssueVol 50 No 8 (2021) QRcode
SectionReview Article(s)
COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 Thyroid disease Meta-analysis

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How to Cite
Xu J, Li Y, Xia Q, Shi Q. Association between Thyroid Disease and Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection: A Meta-Analysis. Iran J Public Health. 2021;50(8):1517-1525.