Antimicrobial Potential of the Green Microalgae Isolated from the Persian Gulf
Background: We aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of Persian Gulf microalgae extracts on some Gram-positive and negative bacterial species in order to find new compounds with antibacterial activity.
Methods: After sampling microalgae from December 2020 to April 2021 from the northernmost part of Qeshm Island in Persian Gulf, the antibacterial activity of methanolic and ethyl acetate extract of microalgae were tested in three concentrations of 125, 250, and 500 mg/ml on Gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli by disk-diffusion assay and the results were compared with two standard antibiotics including ciprofloxacin and streptomycin. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed spectrophotometrically using microplate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reader.
Results: Methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts had antibacterial effects against Gram-positive and negative bacteria. Compared to ethyl acetate extract, the methanolic extract showed stronger effects on both Gram-positive and negative bacteria. The most antibacterial effect was related to methanolic extract with a concentration of 500 mg/ml on S. aureus by 14.6 mm inhibition zone. Evidence from MIC also confirmed that the lowest MIC was belonged to methanolic extract by 0.75 mg/ml against S. aureus. Interestingly, both of these extracts showed more antibacterial activity on Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria.
Conclusion: The investigation proved the efficacy of microalgae extracts isolated from Persian Gulf as natural antimicrobials and suggested the possibility of employing them in medicines as antimicrobial agents.
2. Mimouni V, Ulmann L, Pasquet V, et al (2012). The potential of microalgae for the production of bioactive molecules of pharmaceutical interest. Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 13 (15): 2733-50.
3. Manirafasha E, Ndikubwimana T, Zeng X, Lu Y, Jing K (2016). Phycobiliprotein: Potential microalgae derived pharmaceutical and biological reagent. Biochem Eng J, 109: 282-96.
4. Lauritano C, Andersen J H, Hansen E, et al (2016). Bioactivity screening of microalgae for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetes, and antibacterial activities. Front Mar Sci, 3: 68.
5. Kokou F, Makridis P, Kentouri M, Divanach P (2012). Antibacterial activity in microalgae cultures. Aquac Res, 43(10): 1520-27.
6. Spolaore P, Joannis-Cassan C, Duran E, Isambert A (2006). Commercial applications of microalgae. J Biosci Bioeng, 101(2): 87-96.
7. Świątkiewicz S, Arczewska-Włosek A, Józefiak D (2015). Application of microalgae biomass in poultry nutrition. Worlds Poult Sci J, 71(4): 663-72.
8. Jafari H, Jahromi St, Zargan J, et al (2021). Cloning and Expression of N-CFTX-1 Antigen from Chironex fleckeri in Escherichia coli and Determination of Immunogenicity in Mice. Iran J Public Health, 50(2):376-83.
9. Aminnezhad S, Kermanshahi R K, Ranjbar R (2015). Evaluation of synergistic interactions between cell-free supernatant of Lactobacillus strains and amikacin and genetamicin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Jundishapur J Microbiol, 8(4):e16592
10. Maeda Y, Yoshino T, Matsunaga T, Matsumoto M, Tanaka T (2018). Marine microalgae for production of biofuels and chemicals. Curr Opin Biotechnol, 50: 111-20.
11. Falaise C, François C, Travers M-A, et al (2016). Antimicrobial compounds from eukaryotic microalgae against human pathogens and diseases in aquaculture. Mar Drugs, 14(9):159.
12. Ranjbar R, Owlia P, Saderi H, et al (2011). Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from burned patients hospitalized in a major burn center in Tehran, Iran. Acta Med Iran, 49(10):675-9.
13. Jonaidi Jafari N, Kargozari M, Ranjbar R, et al (2018). The effect of chitosan coating incorporated with ethanolic extract of propolis on the quality of refrigerated chicken fillet. J Food Process Preserv, 42: e13336.
14. Cars O, Högberg L D, Murray M, et al (2008). Meeting the challenge of antibiotic resistance. BMJ, 337:a1438.
15. Raeispour M, Ranjbar R (2018). Antibiotic resistance, virulence factors and genotyping of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control, 7:118.
16. Swapnil S, Bruno B, Udhaya R, et al (2014). Bioactive compounds derived from microalgae showing antimicrobial activities. J Aquac Res Development, 5(3):224.
17. Dussault D, Vu K D, Vansach T, et al (2016). Antimicrobial effects of marine algal extracts and cyanobacterial pure compounds against five foodborne pathogens. Food Chem, 199: 114-18.
18. Kausalya M, Rao G N (2015). Antimicrobial activity of marine algae. J Algal Biomass Utln, 6(1): 78-87.
19. Pérez M J, Falqué E, Domínguez H (2016). Antimicrobial action of compounds from marine seaweed. Mar Drugs, 14(3): 52.
20. Liu M, Liu Y, Cao M-J, Liu G-M, et al (2017). Antibacterial activity and mechanisms of depolymerized fucoidans isolated from Laminaria japonica. Carbohydr Polym, 172: 294-305.
21. Pina-Pérez M C, Rivas A, Martínez A, Rodrigo D (2017). Antimicrobial potential of macro and microalgae against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in food. Food Chem, 235: 34-44.
22. Rojas V, Rivas L, Cárdenas C, Guzmán F (2020). Cyanobacteria and Eukaryotic Microalgae as Emerging Sources of Antibacterial Peptides. Molecules, 25(24): 5804.
23. Khomarlou N, Aberoomand-Azar P, Lashgari A P, et al (2018). Essential oil composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Chenopodium album subsp. striatum. Acta Biol Hung, 69(2): 144-55.
24. Kellam S J, Walker J M (1989). Antibacterial activity from marine microalgae in laboratory culture. Br Phycol J, 24(2): 191-94.
25. Wayne P (2018). National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing. Twelfth informational supplement (M100-S28).
26. Eloff J N (1998). A sensitive and quick microplate method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of plant extracts for bacteria. Planta Med, 64(8): 711-13.
27. Karimi A, Majlesi M, Rafieian-Kopaei M (2015). Herbal versus synthetic drugs; beliefs and facts. J Nephropharmacol, 4(1):27-30.
28. El-deen N (2011). Screening for antibacterial activities in some marine algae from the red sea (Hurghada, Egypt). Afr J Microbiol Res, 5(15): 2160-67.
29. Varier K M, Milton M, Arulvasu C, Gajendran B (2013). Evaluation of antibacterial properties of selected red seaweeds from Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu, India. J Acad Indus Res, 1(11): 667-70.
30. Rosaline X D, Sakthivelkumar S, Rajendran K, Janarthanan S (2012). Screening of selected marine algae from the coastal Tamil Nadu, South India for antibacterial activity. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2(1): S140-S46.
31. Krishnika A, Bhanupriya P, Nair B B (2011). Antibacterial activity of eight marine microalgae against a few gram negative bacterial pathogens. J Pharm Innov, 5: 233.
32. Nur Syukriah A, Liza M, Harisun Y, Fadzillah A (2014). Effect of solvent extraction on antioxidant and antibacterial activities from Quercus infectoria (Manjakani). Int Food Res J, 21(3): 1067-1073.
33. Rafińska K, Pomastowski P, Rudnicka J, et al (2019). Effect of solvent and extraction technique on composition and biological activity of Lepidium sativum extracts. Food Chem, 289: 16-25.
34. Münch D, Sahl H-G (2015). Structural variations of the cell wall precursor lipid II in Gram-positive bacteria—Impact on binding and efficacy of antimicrobial peptides. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1848(11 Pt B):3062-71.
35. Beveridge T J (1999). Structures of gram-negative cell walls and their derived membrane vesicles. J Bacteriol, 181(16):4725-33.
36. Silhavy T J, Kahne D, Walker S (2010). The bacterial cell envelope. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol, 2(5): a000414.
|Issue||Vol 51 No 5 (2022)|
|Microalgae Pathogenic bacteria Persian Gulf Gram-positive Gram-negative|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|