The Long-Term Associations of Objective and Subjective Health Status on Mortality
Background: The aim of this study was to reveal the longitudinal associations of health status (HS) and Self-rated Health (SRH) on mortality.
Methods: Data from the Korea Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used in this study. The baseline data (2006) included 10,239 participants. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to verify the hypothesis.
Results: The mortality was high when the health status was Bad and higher when the SRH was Bad. The HS‑Bad–SRH‑Bad group had the highest mortality. Middle-aged people with diseases had higher mortality than older people who perceived themselves as in Bad health. For older people, mortality was high for SRH‑Bad people of all health statuses.
Conclusion: The results predict a high rate of mortality for middle-aged and older people with a combination of HS‑Bad and SRH‑Bad, with SRH being relatively more influential in mortality.
2. Hooyman NR, Kawamoto KY, Kiyak HA (2014). Aging matters: An introduction to social gerontology. Pearson Higher Ed.
3. Statistics Korea (2018). Annual Report on the Cause of Death Statistics: Statistics Korea.
4. National Cancer Information Center, Korea (2018). Cancer statistics [Internet].
5. Chau D, Cho LM, Jani P, Jeor ST (2008). Individualizing recommendations for weight management in the elderly. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 11: 27-31.
6. Booth FW, Roberts CK, Thyfault JP, Ruegsegger G, Toedebusch RG (2017). Role of inactivity in chronic diseases: evo-lutionary insight and pathophysiological mechanisms. Physiol Rev, 97: 1351-1402.
7. WHO (2017). Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds)
8. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018). Status and Issues of Chronic Diseases.
9. Jerković OS, Sauliūnė S, Šaumskas L, Birt CA, Kersnik J (2017). Determinants of self-rated health in elderly populations in urban areas in Slovenia, Lithuania and UK: findings of the EURO-URHIS 2 survey. Eur J Public Health, 27(suppl_2):74-79.
10. Ferraro KF, Farmer MM (1999). Utility of health data from social surveys: Is there a gold Standard for measuring morbidi-ty?. Am Sociol Rev, 64:303-315.
11. McDowell I (2006). Measuring health: a guide to rating scales and questionnaires. Oxford Univ Press, USA.
12. Szybalska A, Broczek K, Puzianowska-Kuznicka M et al (2018). Self-rated health and its association with all-cause mortality of older adults in Poland: The PolSenior project. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 79: 13-20.
13. Woo HK, Moon OR (2008). The difference of mortality according to self-assessed health status. Korean Acad Health Policy Manage, 18: 49-65.
14. Khang YH, Kim HR (2010). Self-rated health and mortality: gender-and age-specific contributions of explanatory fac-tors in South Korea. Int J Public Health, 55: 279-289.
15. Falk H, Skoog I, Johansson L et al (2017). Self-rated health and its association with mortality in older adults in China, India and Latin America—a 10/66 Dementia Research Group study. Age Ageing, 46: 932-939.
16. KLoSA (2015). https://survey.keis.or.kr/eng/klosa/klosa01.jsp
17. Charlson, ME, Pompei, P, Ales, KL, Mac-Kenzie, CR (1987). A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: Development and validation. J Chronic Dis, 40: 373-383.
18. Goldman D, Smith JP (2011). The increas-ing value of education to health. Soc Sci Med, 72: 1728-1737.
19. Tjepkema M, Wilkins R, Long A (2012). Cause-specific mortality by education in Canada: a 16-year follow-up study. Health Rep, 23: 23-31.
20. Rehnberg J, Fritzell J (2016). The shape of the association between income and mortality in old age: A longitudinal Swe-dish national register study. SSM Popul Health, 2: 750-756.
21. Chan L, Hart LG, Goodman DC (2006). Geographic access to health care for rural Medicare beneficiaries. J Rural Health, 22: 140-146.
22. Bello AK, Hemmelgarn B, Lin M et al (2012). Impact of remote location on quality care delivery and relationships to adverse health outcomes in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 27: 3849-3855.
23. Murray JE (2000). Marital protection and marital selection: evidence from a histori-cal-prospective sample of American men. Demography, 37: 511-521.
24. Lillard LA, Panis CW (1996). Marital status and mortality: The role of health. Demog-raphy, 33: 313-327.
25. Steptoe A, Deaton A, Stone AA (2015). Psy-chological wellbeing, health and ageing. Lancet, 385(9968):640-648.
26. Pirani E, Salvini S (2012). Socioeconomic in-equalities and self-rated health: A multi-level study of Italian elderly. Popul Res Poli-cy Rev, 31: 97-117.
27. Mackenbach JP, Simon JG, Looman CW, Joung IM (2002). Self-assessed health and mortality: could psychosocial factors explain the association?. Int J Epidemiol, 31: 1162-1168.
28. Franks P, Gold MR, Fiscella K (2003). Soci-odemographics, self-rated health, and mortality in the US. Soc Sci Med, 56: 2505-2514.
29. Lima-Costa MF, Cesar CC, Chor D, Proietti FA (2012). Self-rated health compared with objectively measured health status as a tool for mortality risk screening in older adults: 10-year follow-up of the Bambui Cohort Study of Aging. Am J Epidemiol, 175: 228-235.
30. May M, Lawlor DA, Brindle P, Patel R, Ebrahim S (2006). Cardiovascular disease risk assessment in older women: can we improve on Framingham? British Wom-en’s Heart and Health prospective cohort study. Heart, 92: 1396-1401.
|Issue||Vol 51 No 9 (2022)|
|Health status Long-term associations Mortality Older people Self-rated health|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|