Latest Effective Measures to Combat COVID-19: A Review
More and more people realize that implementation of preventive measures is the only option left to counteract the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) before specific antiviral drugs are developed. Hence, a number of behavioral, clinical and state interventions have been conducted by dozens of countries to stop or slow down the spread of the virus in the early stages of the epidemic. At present, with the evolution of COVID-19 pandemic getting worse, synthesizing and implementing all measures available are of paramount importance. However, some measures are still being controversial. We aimed to assist policymakers in decision making for better pandemic preparedness. We reviewed the literature that reported accumulated scientific experience to date and summarized the epidemic prevention and control measures in three aspects: control the source of infection, cut off the routes of transmission and protect the susceptible population. First of all, some new approaches were introduced to control the source of infection, such as implementing contact-tracing apps, nucleic acid mixed detection, repeated testing and the establishment of some specialized laboratories. Second, we need to take various measures to cut off all possible routes of transmission, especially persistently pay close attention to checking cold chain foods. Third, due to no valid vaccine has yet been developed, some measures that can cut development time of more conventional vaccines should be implemented or considered. By synthesizing the scientific experience in fighting the COVID-19 epidemic, we suggested the latest effective measures should be carried out concurrently from three aspects, so as to avoid making grim situation even worse.
2. Pollan M, Perez-Gomez B, Pastor-Barriuso R, et al (2020). Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Spain (ENE-COVID): a nationwide, population-based seroepidemiological study. Lancet, 396(10250):535-544.
3. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, et al (2020). Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med, 382(18):1708-1720.
4. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, et al (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteris-tics of 99 cases of 2019 novel corona-virus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a de-scriptive study. Lancet, 395(10223):507-513.
5. World Health Organization (2020). Weekly epidemiological update-29 December 2020. World Health Organization. Availa-ble from: https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/weekly-epidemiological-update---29-december-2020
6. Helmy YA, Fawzy M, Elaswad A, et al (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic: a comprehensive review of taxonomy, ge-netics, epidemiology, diagnosis, treat-ment, and control. J Clin Med, 9(4):1225.
7. Soo RJJ, Chiew CJ, Ma S, et al (2020). De-creased influenza incidence under COVID-19 control measures, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis, 26(8):1933.
8. Ruan L, Wen M, Zeng Q, et al (2020). New measures for COVID-19 response: a les-son from the Wenzhou experience. Clin Infect Dis, 71(15):866–869.
9. Li T, Liu Y, Li M, et al (2020). Mask or no mask for COVID-19: A public health and market study. PLoS One, 15(8):e0237691.
10. Armitage R, Nellums LB (2020). Consider-ing inequalities in the school closure re-sponse to COVID-19. Lancet Glob Health, 8(5):e644.
11. Feng S, Shen C, Xia N, et al (2020). Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Respir Med, 8(5):434-436.
12. Mallapaty S (2020). Why COVID outbreaks look set to worsen this winter. Nature, 586(7831):653.
13. Whiteside P (2020). COVID-19: UK records 55,892 cases-highest ever daily total-as top doctor issues plea. Skynews. Available from: https://news.sky.com/story/covid-19-uk-records-55-892-covid-cases-highest-ever-daily-total-12176421
14. Mahase E (2020). Covid-19: UK govern-ment must "get its act together" as mod-elling suggests 85 000 deaths in second wave, experts say. BMJ, 371:m4242.
15. Kmietowicz Z (2020). Covid-19: "There is no alternative," says Johnson, announc-ing new restrictions for England. BMJ, 371:m4247.
16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). Trends in number of COVID-19 cases and deaths in the US reported to CDC, by State/Territory. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Availa-ble from: https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#trends_dailytrendscases
17. Xing Y, Wong GWK, Ni W, et al (2020). Rapid response to an outbreak in Qing-dao, China. N Engl J Med, 383(23):e129.
18. Dezan Shira & Associates Staff in China (2020). China coronavirus updates: latest developments and business advisory. China Briefing. Available from: https://www.china-briefing.com/news/china-coronavirus-updates-latest-developments-business-advisory-part-2/
19. World Health Organization (2020). Weekly epidemiological update-3 November 2020. World Health Organization. Availa-ble from: https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/weekly-epidemiological-update---3-november-2020
20. Liu W, Yue XG, Tchounwou PB (2020). Re-sponse to the COVID-19 epidemic: The chinese experience and implications for other countries. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(7):2304.
21. Pan XB (2020). Application of personal-oriented digital technology in preventing transmission of COVID-19, China. Ir J Med Sci, 27: 1–2.
22. Chen F, Geng Z, Wang J, et al (2020). Comparing two sample pooling strategies for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection for effi-cient screening of COVID-19. J Med Vi-rol, doi: 10.1002/jmv.26632.
23. Hogan CA, Sahoo MK, Pinsky BA (2020). Sample pooling as a strategy to detect community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. JAMA, 323(19):1967-1969.
24. Lim KL, Johari NA, Wong ST, et al (2020). A novel strategy for community screen-ing of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): Sam-ple pooling method. PLoS One, 15(8):e0238417.
25. Loeffelholz MJ, Tang YW (2020). Laborato-ry diagnosis of emerging human corona-virus infections - the state of the art. Emerg Microbes Infect, 9(1):747-756.
26. Peto J (2020). Covid-19 mass testing facili-ties could end the epidemic rapidly. BMJ, 368:m1163.
27. Peto J, Alwan NA, Godfrey KM, et al (2020). Universal weekly testing as the UK COVID-19 lockdown exit strategy. Lancet, 395(10234):1420-1421.
28. Henderson MK, Kozlakidis Z, Fachiroh J, et al (2020). The responses of biobanks to COVID-19. Biopreserv Biobank, 18(6): 483-491.
29. Perimbanayagam K, Chan D (2020). Only dexamethasone proven effective in treat-ing Covid-19, says Health DG. New Straits Times. Available from: https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2020/10/633624/only-dexamethasone-proven-effective-treating-covid-19-says-health-dg
30. National Health Service (2020). Visitors who do not need to pay for NHS treatment. National Health Service. Available from: https://www.nhs.uk/using-the-nhs/nhs-services/visiting-or-moving-to-england/visitors-who-do-not-need-pay-for-nhs-treatment/
31. Nazer F (2020). King Salman orders free coronavirus treatment in Saudi Arabia, in-cluding residency violators. Arab News. Available from: https://www.arabnews.com/node/1650026/saudi-arabia
32. Jing H (2020). China gives COVID-19 pa-tients free treatment. Xinhua. Available from: https://www.shine.cn/news/nation/2006079704/
33. Rowles C (2020). DHEC offers free COVID-19 testing to the grand strand. abc15 NEWS. https://wpde.com/news/coronavirus/dhec-offers-free-covid-19-testing-to-the-grand-strand
34. Han D, Li R, Han Y, et al (2020). COVID-19: Insight into the asymptomatic SARS-COV-2 infection and transmission. Int J Biol Sci, 16(15):2803-2811.
35. Kim SE, Jeong HS, Yu Y, et al (2020). Viral kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic carriers and presymptomatic patients. Int J Infect Dis, 95:441-443.
36. Peng B, Zhou W, Pettit R W, et al (2020). Optimal test-assisted quarantine strategies for COVID-19. medRxiv, doi: 10.1101/2020.11.06.20222398.
37. Gao Z, Xu Y, Sun C, et al (2021). A system-atic review of asymptomatic infections with COVID-19. J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 54(1):12-16.
38. Yang P, Wang X (2020). COVID-19: a new challenge for human beings. Cell Mol Im-munol, 17(5):555-557.
39. Jamshaid H, Zahid F, Din IU, et al (2020). Diagnostic and treatment strategies for COVID-19. AAPS PharmSciTech, 21(6): 222.
40. Peeples L (2020). Face masks: what the data say. Nature, 586(7828):186-189.
41. Jefferson T, Foxlee R, Del Mar C, et al (2008). Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory virus-es: systematic review. BMJ, 339:b3675.
42. Rab S, Javaid M, Haleem A, et al (2020). Face masks are new normal after COVID-19 pandemic. Diabetes Metab Syndr, 14(6):1617-1619.
43. Varghese GM, John R (2020). COVID-19 in India: Moving from containment to mitigation. Indian J Med Res, 151(2 & 3):136-139.
44. Prem K, Liu Y, Russell TW, et al (2020). The effect of control strategies to reduce so-cial mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China: a model-ling study. Lancet Public Health, 5(5):e261-e270.
45. Xu X, Wang S, Dong J, et al (2020). An analysis of the domestic resumption of social production and life under the COVID-19 epidemic. PLoS One, 15(7):e0236387.
46. Lelieveld J, Helleis F, Borrmann S, et al (2020). Model calculations of aerosol transmission and infection risk of COVID-19 in indoor environments. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(21):8114.
47. Van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, et al (2020). Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med, 382(16):1564-1567.
48. Hu J, Lei C, Chen Z, et al (2020). Distribu-tion of airborne SARS-CoV-2 and possi-ble aerosol transmission in Wuhan hos-pitals, China. Natl Sci Rev, 7(12):1865-1867.
49. Wang W, Xu Y, Gao R, et al (2020). Detec-tion of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens. JAMA, 323(18):1843-1844.
50. Xiao F, Tang M, Zheng X, et al (2020). Evi-dence for gastrointestinal infection of SARS-CoV-2. Gastroenterology, 158(6):1831-1833.
51. Chan KH, Sridhar S, Zhang RR, et al (2020). Factors affecting stability and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2. J Hosp Infect, 106(2):226-231.
52. Chin AWH, Chu JTS, Perera MRA, et al (2020). Stability of SARS-CoV-2 in differ-ent environmental conditions. Lancet Mi-crobe, 1(1):e10.
53. Harada KH, Harada Sassa M, Yamamoto N (2020). Letter to the editor on "an imper-ative need for research on the role of en-vironmental factors in transmission of novel coronavirus (COVID-19)", back to basics. Environ Sci Technol, 54(13):7738-7739.
54. Cuicchi D, Lazzarotto T, Poggioli G (2021). Fecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2: review of laboratory-confirmed virus in gastrointestinal system. Int J Colorectal Dis, 14 : 1–8.
55. Han J, Zhang X, He S, et al (2020). Can the coronavirus disease be transmitted from food? A review of evidence, risks, poli-cies and knowledge gaps. Environ Chem Lett, 1 : 1–12.
56. Matson MJ, Yinda CK, Seifert SN, et al (2020). Effect of environmental condi-tions on SARS-CoV-2 stability in human nasal mucus and sputum. Emerg Infect Dis, 26(9): 2276–2278.
57. Pang X, Ren L, Wu S, et al (2020). Cold-chain food contamination as the possible origin of Covid-19 resurgence in Beijing. Natl Sci Rev, 7(12):1861-1864.
58. Yusha Z, Keyue X (2020). Living corona-virus detected in imported frozen food packaging in Qingdao for 1st time, may push forward study of virus origins: vi-rologist. Global Times. Available from: https://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1203836.shtml
59. Ceylan Z, Meral R, Cetinkaya T (2020). Rele-vance of SARS-CoV-2 in food safety and food hygiene: potential preventive measures, suggestions and nanotechno-logical approaches. Virusdisease, 31(2):154-160.
60. World Health Organization (2020). Draft landscape of COVID-19 candidate vac-cines. World Health Organization. Avail-able from: https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/draft-landscape-of-covid-19-candidate-vaccines
61. Lurie N, Saville M, Hatchett R, et al (2020). Developing covid-19 vaccines at pan-demic speed. N Engl J Med, 382(21):1969-1973.
62. Jeyanathan M, Afkhami S, Smaill F, et al (2020). Immunological considerations for COVID-19 vaccine strategies. Nat Rev Immunol, 20(10):615-632.
63. Cohen J (2020). Speed coronavirus vaccine testing by deliberately infecting volun-teers? Not so fast, some scientists warn. Science, doi: 10.1126/science.abc0006.
64. D'Amore R (2020). ‘No need to panic’: COVID-19 mutations unlikely to impact vaccine, experts say. Global News. Avail-able from: https://globalnews.ca/news/7522774/new-coronavirus-strain-mutation-vaccine/
65. Reuters (2020). Where Are We In The COVID-19 Vaccine Race? Long Island Press. https://www.longislandpress.com/2020/12/28/where-are-we-in-the-covid-19-vaccine-race-2/
66. Mahase E (2020). Covid-19: UK approves Oxford vaccine as cases of new variant surge. BMJ, 371:m4968.
67. Vrieze DJ (2020). Suspicions grow that na-noparticles in Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine trigger rare allergic reactions. Science, doi: 10.1126/science.abg2359.
68. Peiris M, Leung GM (2020). What can we expect from first-generation COVID-19 vaccines? Lancet, 396(10261):1467-1469.
|Issue||Vol 50 No 4 (2021)|
|Effective measures SARS-CoV-2 Cold chain Routes of transmission COVID-19|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|