Human Cysticercosis in Asia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • Negar BIZHANI Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Saeideh HASHEMI HAFSHEJANI Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Neda MOHAMMADI Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mehdi REZAEI Department of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  • Mohammad Bagher ROKNI Mail Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Keywords:
Cysticercosis, Taenia solium, Human, Neglected tropical disease, Prevalence, Asia

Abstract

Background: Cysticercosis in among the neglected tropical disease caused by eating the egg of parasite Taenia solium. In this review, we aimed to verify the prevalence of human cysticercosis in different countries of Asia using systematic review and meta-analysis approach.

Methods: Based of the protocol, reliable databases including PubMed, SCOPUS, Science Direct, Embase, and Cochrane Library from 1990-2018 were searched using a panel of keywords. Overall, 48 countries of Asia were searched in turn and data were analyzed using a category of statistical tests.

Results: Out of 28 included studies, 586175 samples were collected and included in the data analysis. Based on the meta-analysis results, the overall pooled percent of cysticercosis was estimated 3.8% (95% CI: [2.0, 7.0]). According to the result of heterogeneity statistics including I-squared, chi-square, and tau-squared, it was statistically significant (Tau2 = 2.94, chi2 = 12733.31, P value <0.001, I2 = 100%) therefore a random effect model was used to handle the heterogeneity of studies. To evaluate the trend of cysticercosis over the time, Cumulative meta-analysis was performed and the result showed that there was a minor upward tendency in the prevalence of cysticercosis over the time.

Conclusion: Although, considering the religious culture and food habits in Asia, we might have expected to witness a low prevalence of human cysticercosis, but we noticed more or less significant infection in some countries of the region. Regarding the new feature of immigration and travel between countries, all authorities are advised to take measures on controlling and monitoring the disease.

References

1. World Health Organization (2020). Neglected tropical diseases. www.who.int/neglected_diseases/diseases/en/
2. Ndimubanzi P, Carabin H, Budke C, et al (2010). A Systematic Review of the Frequency of Neurocyticercosis with a Focus on People with Epilepsy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 4:e870.
3. Waikagul J, Dekumyoy P, Anantaphruti MT (2006). Taeniasis, cysticercosis and echinococcosis in Thailand. Parasitol Int, 55 Suppl:S175-80.
4. Wandra T, Ito A, Swastika K, Dharmawan NS, Sako Y, Okamoto M (2013). Taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia: past and present situations. Parasitology, 140:1608-16.
5. Yamasaki H (2013). Current status and perspectives of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Korean J Parasitol, 51:19-29.
6. Noor Azian MY, Hakim SL, Sumiati A, Norhafizah M (2006). Seroprevalence of cysticercosis in a rural village of Ranau, Sabah, Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 37:58-61.
7. Piryani RM, Kohli SC, Shrestha G, Shukla A, Malla TB (2007). Human neurocysticercosis managed at Nepalganj Medical College, Teaching Hospital, Kohalpur, Nepal. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ), 5:518-20.
8. Rao KS, Adhikari S, Gauchan E, et al (2017). Time trend of neurocysticercosis in children with seizures in a tertiary hospital of western Nepal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 11:e0005605.
9. Li T, Craig PS, Ito A, et al (2006). Taeniasis/cysticercosis in a Tibetan population in Sichuan Province, China. Acta Trop, 100:223-31.
10. Chung JY, Eom KS, Yang Y, et al (2005). A seroepidemiological survey of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Nabo, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Korean J Parasitol, 43:135-9.
11. Ng-Nguyen D, Noh J, Breen K, Stevenson MA, Handali S, Traub RJ (2018). The epidemiology of porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis in communities of the Central Highlands in Vietnam. Parasit Vectors, 11:360.
12. Robertson LJ, Joshi H, Utaaker KS, Kumar A, Chaudhary S, Goyal K, Sehgal R (2017). Changes in the seroprevalence of cysticercosis in suspected patients in Chandigarh, India between 1998 and 2014: analysis of 17 years of data. Epidemiol Infect, 145:1159-1167.
13. Chai JY (2013). Human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: hidden or gone? Korean J Parasitol, 51:9-17.
14. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman D (2009). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA statement. Br Med J, 8:336-341.
15. Wandra T, Depary AA, Sutisna P, et al (2006). Taeniasis and cysticercosis in Bali and North Sumatra, Indonesia. Parasitol Int, 55 Suppl:S155-60.
16. Openshaw JJ, Medina A, Felt SA, Li T, Huan Z, Rozelle S, Luby SP (2018). Prevalence and risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in school-aged children: A school based study in western Sichuan, People's Republic of China. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 12:e0006465.
17. Coyle CM, Mahanty S, Zunt JR, et al (2012). Neurocysticercosis: neglected but not forgotten. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 6:e1500.
18. Li Y, Wu F, F. Z (1996). The first survey on cysticercosis in humans in Nangang Region of Heliongjiang Province, China. Dis Monitor, 11.
19. Ji K, Tong S, Liu Y, al. e (1996). Serological epidemiological surveys on cysticercosis in humans in Haerbin Region of Helongjiang Province, China. Chin J Parasit Dis Control, 9.
20. Li T, Chen X, Wang H, Openshaw JJ, Zhong B, Felt SA, Ito A, Luby SP (2019). High prevalence of taeniasis and Taenia solium cysticercosis in children in western Sichuan, China. Acta Trop, 199:105133.
21. Zhou H, Wang Q, Zhou J, Li T, Medina A, Felt SA, Rozelle S, Openshaw JJ (2019). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) of Cysticercosis in School-Aged Children in Tibetan Rural Farming Areas of Western China: Implications for Intervention Planning. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 16.
22. Ng-Nguyen D, Stevenson MA, Traub RJ (2017). A systematic review of taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis in Vietnam. Parasit Vectors, 10:150.
23. Vietnam MoHo (2012). Taeniasis and Cysticercosis. Rev. Work. helminthiasis Control Act. period 2006-2011 Implement. Work. period 2012–2015.
24. Doanh NQ, Kim NT, De NV, NN. L (2002). Result of survey on taeniasis and cysticercosis humans and pigs in Bac Ninh and Bac Kan provinces. Vet Sci Tech, 9:46-9.
25. Erhart A, Dorny P, Văn Đệ N, et al (2002). Taenia solium cysticercosis in a village in northern Viet Nam: Sero-prevalence study using an ELISA for detecting circulating antigen. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 96:270-2.
26. Anh Tuan P, Dung TTK, Nhi VA (2001). Sero-epidemiological investigation of cysticercosis in the southern provinces. J Malar Parasite Dis Control, 4:81-7.
27. Raina SK, Razdan S, Pandita K, Sharma R, Gupta V, Razdan S (2012). Active epilepsy as indicator of neurocysticercosis in rural northwest India. Epilepsy Res Treat, 2012: 802747.
28. Thamilselvan P, Muthuraman KR, Mandal J, Parija SC (2016). Rising trends of neurocysticercosis: A serological report from tertiary-care hospital in South India. Trop Parasitol, 6:141-146.
29. Rajshekhar V, Raghava MV, Prabhakaran V, Oommen A, Muliyil J (2006). Active epilepsy as an index of burden of neurocysticercosis in Vellore district, India. Neurology, 67:2135-9.
30. Singh BB, Khatkar MS, Gill JPS, Dhand NK (2017). Estimation of the health and economic burden of neurocysticercosis in India. Acta Trop, 165:161-169.
31. Vora SH, Motghare DD, Ferreira AM, Kulkarni MS, Vaz FS (2008). Prevalence of human cysticercosis and taeniasis in rural Goa, India. J Commun Dis, 40:147-50.
32. Lee S, Kim M, Back B, Choi J, Kim T, Hwang Y (2003). Analysis of Parasite-Specific-Antibody Positive Patients for Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, Cysticercus and Sparganum using ELISA. Ann Lab Med, 23:126-131.
33. Lee MK, Hong S-J, Kim HR (2010). Seroprevalence of tissue invading parasitic infections diagnosed by ELISA in Korea. J Korean Med Sci, 25:1272-1276.
34. Choi WH, Chu JP, Jiang M, et al (2010). Analysis of parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (1984-2005) in Seoul, Korea. Korean J Parasitol, 48:85-8.
35. Kim J, Chung WS, Cho KH (1994). [Status of parasitic infection diagnosed by surgical biopsy in Kwangju and Chollanam-do]. Korean J Parasitol, 32:93-100.
36. Wandra T, Ito A, Yamasaki H, Suroso T, Margono SS (2003). Taenia solium cysticercosis, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Emerg Infect Dis, 9:884-5.
37. Theis JH, Goldsmith RS, Flisser A, et al (1994). Detection by immunoblot assay of antibodies to Taenia solium cysticerci in sera from residents of rural communities and from epileptic patients in Bali, Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 25:464-8.
38. Sutisna IP, Fraser A, Kapti IN, et al (1999). Community prevalence study of taeniasis and cysticerosis in Bail, Indonesia. Trop Med Int Health, 4:288-94.
39. Wandra T, Swastika K, Dharmawan NS, et al (2015). The present situation and towards the prevention and control of neurocysticercosis on the tropical island, Bali, Indonesia. Parasit Vectors, 8:148.
40. Wandra T, Sudewi AA, Swastika IK, et al (2011). Taeniasis/cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 42:793-802.
41. Ito A, Wandra T, Yamasaki H, et al (2004). Cysticercosis/taeniasis in Asia and the Pacific. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis, 4:95-107.
42. Wandra T, Subahar R, Simanjuntak GM, et al (2000). Resurgence of cases of epileptic seizures and burns associated with cysticercosis in Assologaima, Jayawijaya, Irian Jaya, Indonesia, 1991-95. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 94:46-50.
43. Wandra T, Sutisna P, Dharmawan NS, Margono SS, Sudewi R, Suroso T, Craig PS, Ito A (2006). High prevalence of Taenia saginata taeniasis and status of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia, 2002-2004. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 100:346-53.
44. Brizzi K, Pelden S, Tshokey T, et al (2016). Neurocysticercosis in Bhutan: a cross-sectional study in people with epilepsy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 110:517-526.
45. Xu J-M, Acosta LP, Hou M, et al (2010). Seroprevalence of Cysticercosis in Children and Young Adults Living in a Helminth Endemic Community in Leyte, the Philippines. J Trop Med, 2010:603174.
Published
2020-10-01
How to Cite
1.
BIZHANI N, HASHEMI HAFSHEJANI S, MOHAMMADI N, REZAEI M, ROKNI MB. Human Cysticercosis in Asia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Iran J Public Health. 49(10):1839-1847.
Section
Review Article(s)