Violence against Pregnant Women in Indonesia
Background: Generally, violence against women, especially during pregnancy, can increase the risk of pregnancy and childbirth complications. Besides, multiple trauma may occur because it affects not only the woman but also the fetus. The present study analyzed the factors associated with violence against pregnant women in Indonesia.
Methods: This cross-sectional study involved participants consisted of 2,553 pregnant women (aged 15-49) from the 2017 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey data. The dependent variable was violence, while the independent variables included the characteristics of the households, respondents, and husbands/partners. In the final stage, the author calculated determinants using binary logistic regression.
Results: The higher the wealth status of pregnant women, the lower the likelihood of domestic violence. The pregnant women who jointly owned a house with their husbands/partners were more likely to be violated than those who did not. Pregnant women in the high parity category were at greater risk of experiencing violence than those in the primiparous category. A husband/partner at a younger age increased the likelihood of violence among pregnant women. Finally, the pregnant women whose husbands/partners had primary/secondary education were more likely to experience violence than those whose husbands/partners had no education.
Conclusion: The study concluded five variables were statistically and significantly associated with violence against women in Indonesia: wealth status, homeownership, parity, husband/partner’ age, and the education level of the husbands/partners.
2. Tiruye TY, Chojenta C, Harris ML, Holliday E, Loxton D (2020). The Role of Mater-nal Intimate Partner Violence Victimiza-tion on Neonatal Mortality in Ethiopia. J Interpers Violence, in press.
3. Belay S, Astatkie A, Emmelin M, Hinderaker SG (2019). Intimate partner violence and maternal depression during pregnancy: A community-based cross-sectional study in Ethiopia. PLoS One, 14(7): e0220003.
4. Waddell N, Karatzias T (2019). The relation-ship between interpersonal trauma and substance misuse in pregnancy. Br J Mid-wifery, 27(9): 578–88.
5. Koch AR, Rosenberg D, Geller SE (2016). Higher Risk of Homicide among Preg-nant and Postpartum Females Aged 10-29 Years in Illinois, 2002-2011. Obstet Gy-necol, 128(3): 440–446.
6. Do Nascimento SG, Da Silva RS, De Moraes Cavalcante L, De Carvalho APR, Do Bonfim CV (2018). External causes of mortality in pregnant and puerperal women. ACTA Paul Enferm, 31(2): 181–186.
7. Meh C, Thind A, Terry AL (2020). Ratios and determinants of maternal mortality: A comparison of geographic differences in the northern and southern regions of Cameroon. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 20(1): 194.
8. Zheng B, Zhu X, Hu Z, et al (2020). The prevalence of domestic violence and its association with family factors: A cross-sectional study among pregnant women in urban communities of Hengyang City, China. BMC Public Health, 20(1): 620.
9. Alebel A, Kibret GD, Wagnew F, et al (2018). Intimate partner violence and as-sociated factors among pregnant women in Ethiopia: A systematic review and me-ta-analysis. Reprod Health,15(1): 196.
10. Orpin J, Papadopoulos C, Puthussery S (2020). The Prevalence of Domestic Vio-lence Among Pregnant Women in Nige-ria: A Systematic Review. Trauma, Violence, Abus, 21(1): 3–15.
11. El-Nimr NA, Gouda SM, Wahdan IMH (2020). Violence against women in a slum area in Helwan, Cairo, Egypt: A commu-nity based survey. J Res Health Sci, 20(1): e00466.
12. Fekadu E, Yigzaw G, Gelaye KA, et al (2018). Prevalence of domestic violence and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Womens Health, 18(1): 138.
13. Ribeiro MRC, Silva AAMD, Schraiber LB, et al (2020). Inversion of traditional gender roles and intimate partner violence against pregnant women. Cad Saude Publi-ca, 36(5): 00113919.
14. Kian FR, Alikamali M, Aliei MM, Mehran A (2019). Patterns of intimate partner vio-lence: A study of female victims in urban versus rural areas of southeast Iran. Shi-raz E Med J, 20(10): e69680.
15. Azene ZN, Yeshita HY, Mekonnen FA (2019). Intimate partner violence and as-sociated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care service in Debre Markos town health facilities, Northwest Ethiopia. PLoS One, 14(7): e0218722.
16. Laksono AD, Wulandari RD, Soedirham O (2019). Urban and Rural Disparities in Hospital Utilization among Indonesian Adults. Iran J Public Health, 48(2): 247–55.
17. Laksono AD, Wulandari RD (2020). Urban-Rural Disparities of Facility-Based Child-birth in Indonesia. In: 4th International Symposium on Health Research (ISHR 2019). Denpasar: Atlantis Press; p. 33–9.
18. Suharmiati, Laksono AD, Astuti WD (2013). Policy Review on Health Services in Pri-mary Health Center in the Border and Remote Area (Review Kebijakan tentang Pelayanan Kesehatan Puskesmas di Dae-rah Terpencil Perbatasan). Bull Heal Syst Res, 16(2): 109–116.
19. Laksono AD, Soerachman R, Angkasawati TJ (2016). Case Study of Muyu Ethnic’s Maternal Health in Mindiptara District-Boven Digoel (Studi Kasus Kesehatan Maternal Suku Muyu di Distrik Min-diptana, Kabupaten Boven Digoel). J Re-prod Heal, 07(03): 145–155.
20. Laksono AD, Faizin K, Raunsay EM, Soerachman R (2014). Muyu women in exile (Perempuan Muyu dalam Pengasingan). Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbitan Balitbangkes.
21. Pratiwi NL, Fitrianti Y, Nuraini S, et al (2019). Concealed Pregnant Women or Kemel of Gayo Ethnic in Blang Pegayon District, Gayo Lues District, Aceh. Bull Heal Syst Res, 22(2): 81–90.
22. Muljono P, Sarwoprasodjo S, Mintarti M (2016). Developing the family protection model to reduce the family domestic vio-lence in west Java, Indonesia. Int J Econ Perspect, 10(4): 29–40.
23. Murphy M, Ellsberg M, Contreras-Urbina M (2020). Nowhere to go: Disclosure and help-seeking behaviors for survivors of violence against women and girls in South Sudan. Confl Health, 14(1): 6.
24. Gibbs A, Corboz J, Chirwa E, et al (2020). The impacts of combined social and economic empowerment training on in-timate partner violence, depression, gen-der norms and livelihoods among wom-en: An individually randomised con-trolled trial and qualitative study in Af-ghanistan. BMJ Glob Heal, 5(3): e001946.
25. Nisak SS, Sugiharti L (2020). Gender ine-quality and women poverty in Indonesia. Int J Innov Creat Chang, 11(9): 375–387.
26. Roziqin A (2020). Gender Equality Based Education in Central Java Province. SO-CIA J Ilmu-Ilmu Sos, 16(2): 202–210.
27. Niza I, Sakban A (2017). Settlement of Cases of Domestic Violence outside the Court (Penyelesaian Kasus Kekerasan dalam Rumah Tangga di Luar Pengadilan). CIVICUS, 5(1): 21–30.
28. Valadbeigi T, Gharaei HA, Rajabi A, et al (2017). The relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and stillbirth and neonatal mortality. J Adv Pharm Educ Res, 7(4): 450–459.
29. Gebrezgi BH, Badi MB, Cherkose EA, Weldehaweria NB (2017). Factors associ-ated with intimate partner physical vio-lence among women attending antenatal care in Shire Endaselassie town, Tigray, northern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study, July 2015. Reprod Health, 14(1): 76.
30. Tiruye TY, Harris ML, Chojenta C, Holliday E, Loxton D (2020). Determinants of in-timate partner violence against women in Ethiopia: A multi-level analysis. PLoS One, 15(4): e0232217.
31. Ashenafi W, Mengistie B, Egata G, Berhane Y (2020). Prevalence and associated fac-tors of intimate partner violence during pregnancy in eastern ethiopia. Int J Wom-ens Health, 12: 339–58.
32. Wulandari RD, Laksono AD (2020). Educa-tion as predictor of the knowledge of pregnancy danger signs in Rural Indone-sia. Int J Innov Creat Chang, 13(1): 1037–1051.
33. Laksono AD, Wulandari RD, Kusrini I, Ibad M (2021). The effects of mother’s education on achieving exclusive breast-feeding in Indonesia. BMC Public Health, 21(1): 14.
34. Ipa M, Widawati M, Laksono AD, Kusrini I, Dhewantara PW (2020). Variation of pre-ventive practices and its association with malaria infection in eastern Indonesia: Findings from community-based survey. PLoS One, 15(5): e0232909.
35. Megatsari H, Laksono AD, Ibad M, et al (2020). The community psychosocial burden during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Heliyon, 6(10): e05136.
36. Laksono AD, Wulandari RD (2022). The Barrier to Maternity Care in Rural Indo-nesia. J Public Heal, 30(1): 135–140.
37. Rohmah N, Yusuf A, Hargono R, et al (2020). Determinants of teenage preg-nancy in Indonesia. Indian J Forensic Med Toxicol, 14(3): 2080–2085.
38. Abebe Abate B, Admassu Wossen B, Tilahun Degfie T (2016). Determinants of intimate partner violence during pregnan-cy among married women in Abay Chomen district, Western Ethiopia: A community based cross sectional study. BMC Womens Health, 16(1): 16.
39. Wagman JA, Donta B, Ritter J, Naik DD, et al (2018). Husband’s Alcohol Use, Inti-mate Partner Violence, and Family Mal-treatment of Low-Income Postpartum Women in Mumbai, India. J Interpers Vio-lence, 33(14): 2241–2267.
40. Reeves E (2020). Family violence, protection orders and systems abuse: views of legal practitioners. Curr Issues Crim Justice, 32(1): 91–110.
41. Lestari D (2017). Home Violence against Women. J Law Dev, 35(3):367.
42. Putra IND., Creese H (2016). Negotiating cultural constraints: strategic decision-making by widows and divorcees (janda) in contemporary Bali. Indones Malay World, 44(128): 104–122.
43. Parker L, Creese H (2016). The stigmatisa-tion of widows and divorcees (janda) in Indonesian society. Indones Malay World, 44(128): 1–6.
44. Parker L (2016). The theory and context of the stigmatisation of widows and di-vorcees (janda) in Indonesia. Indones Malay World, 44(128): 7–26.
45. Wulandari RD, Laksono AD (2020). The as-sociation of socioeconomic status on ear-ly marriage among women in Rural In-donesia (Hubungan status ekonomi ter-hadap pernikahan dini pada perempuan di perdesaan indonesia). J Kesehat Repro-duksi, 11(2): 115–124.
46. Kasiati K, Isfentiani D (2020). Factors En-couraging Early Marriage Among Ado-lescent Girls in East Java of Indonesia. SEAJOM Southeast Asia J Midwifery, 6(1): 1–6.
47. Sakina AI, DHS A (2017). Highlighting Pa-triarchal Culture in Indonesia (Menyoroti Budaya Patriarki di Indonesia). Share Soc Work J, 7(1): 71–80.
48. Hayati N, Mulyati L, Arya N (2020). The ex-perience of women victims of domestic violence in Kuningan: a phenomenologi-cal study (Pengalaman perempuan korban kekerasan dalam rumah tangga di Kuningan: studi fenomenologi). Natl Nurs Conf, 1(1): 13.
49. Laksono AD, Wulandari RD (2019). “Chil-dren are Assets”: Meta-Synthesis of ‘the Value of Children’ in the Lani and Acehnese Tribes. J Reprod Heal, 10(1): 11–20.
50. Sudarso, Keban PE, Mas’udah S (2019). Gender, religion and patriarchy: The edu-cational discrimination of coastal madu-rese women, East Java. J Int Womens Stud, 20(9): 1–12.
51. Sikweyiya Y, Addo-Lartey AA, Alangea DO, et al (2020). Patriarchy and gender-inequitable attitudes as drivers of intimate partner violence against women in the central region of Ghana. BMC Public Health, 20(1): 682.
52. Ni’am S (2017). Gender Perspective Educa-tion in Indonesia (Considering and Measuring the Role of Gender in Educa-tion). EGALITA, 10(1): 1.
|Issue||Vol 51 No 6 (2022)|
|Violence risk Pregnant women Household survey Quantitative study Indonesia|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|