Kinematic Comparisons of Increased Exercise Repetitions and Intensities on the Dominant and Non-Dominant Upper Limbs for Prevention of Dyskinesia

  • Haemi JEE Mail Department of Physical Therapy, Namseoul University, Cheonan-si, Korea
Repetition, Exercise intensity, Asymmetry, Dyskinesia


Background: Increased exercise repetitions and intensities need to be compared between dominant and non-dominant sides to prevent asymmetrically conducted movements for possible dyskinesia.

Methods: A total of 20 participants were enrolled from Inha University, Incheon, Korea in 2019. They were assessed for comparisons of asymmetrical motion between the dominant and non-dominant arms during the abduction and adduction lateral raises during more than fifteen repetitions and low and high exercise intensity by giving different weight loads based on 1-RM.

Results: Repetition led to significant reductions in range of motion for both dominant and non-dominant sides. In addition, increased repetitions led to significant greater reductions in range of motion especially toward the last phases of repetitions. Moreover, the dominant side showed significantly increased accelerations with increased intensities.

Conclusion: Increased repetitions and exercise intensity led to reduced range of motion and increased accelerations especially for the dominant sides. Dispersing kinematics should be considered to minimize possible dyskinesia between the symmetric sides when performing repetitive and loading physical activity.


1. Gozlan G, Bensoussan L, Coudreuse JM, et al (2006). Isokinetic dynamometer measurement of shoulder rotational strength in healthy elite athletes (swimming, volley-ball, tennis): comparison between dominant and nondominant shoulder. Ann Readapt Med Phys, 49(1):8-15.
2. do Rosario JL (2014). Photographic analysis of human posture: a literature review. J Bodyw Mov Ther, 18(1):56-61.
3. Hadzic V, Sattler T, Veselko M, et al (2014). Strength asymmetry of the shoulders in elite volleyball players. J Athl Train, 49(3):338-44.
4. Maly T, Zahalka F, Mala L, et al (2015). The bilateral strength and power asymmetries in untrained boys. Open Med (Wars), 10(1):224-32.
5. Jee H, Park J (2019). Comparative Analyses of the Dominant and Non-Dominant Upper Limbs during the Abduction and Adduction Motions. Iran J Public Health, 48(10):1768-76.
6. Hosseinimehr SH, Anbarian M, Norasteh AA, et al (2015). The comparison of scapular upward rotation and scapulohumeral rhythm between dominant and non-dominant shoulder in male overhead athletes and non-athletes. Man Ther, 20(6):758-62.
7. Lang CE, Waddell KJ, Klaesner JW, et al (2017). A Method for Quantifying Upper Limb Performance in Daily Life Using Accelerometers. J Vis Exp, (122).
8. Jee H (2019). Feasibility of a set of wrist-worn novice devices for dual motion comparison of the upper limbs during lateral raise motions. J Exerc Rehabil, 15(4):531-36.
9. Matsuki K, Matsuki KO, Mu S, et al (2011). In vivo 3-dimensional analysis of scapular kinematics: comparison of dominant and nondominant shoulders. J Shoulder Elbow Surg, 20(4):659-65.
10. American College of Sports Medicine (2017). ACSM's exercise testing and prescription. 10th ed. Lippincott williams & wilkins. Philadelphia.
11. Paillard T (2012). Effects of general and local fatigue on postural control: a review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 36(1):162-76.
12. Yoshizaki K, Hamada J, Tamai K, et al (2009). Analysis of the scapulohumeral rhythm and electromyography of the shoulder muscles during elevation and lowering: comparison of dominant and nondominant shoulders. J Shoulder Elbow Surg, 18(5):756-63.
13. Cutti AG, Veeger HE (2009). Shoulder biomechanics: today's consensus and tomorrow's perspectives. Med Biol Eng Comput, 47(5):463-6.
14. Noble BJ, Borg GA, Jacobs I, et al (1983). A category-ratio perceived exertion scale: relationship to blood and muscle lactates and heart rate. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 15(6):523-8.
15. Andersen LL, Andersen CH, Mortensen OS, et al (2010). Muscle activation and perceived loading during rehabilitation exercises: comparison of dumbbells and elastic resistance. Phys Ther, 90(4):538-49.
16. Oldfield RC (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9(1):97-113.
17. Veale JF (2014). Edinburgh Handedness Inventory - Short Form: a revised version based on confirmatory factor analysis. Laterality, 19(2):164-77.
18. Alver BA, Sell K, Deuster PA (2017). NSCA's Essentials of Tactical Strength and Conditioning. 1st ed. Human Kinetics. Champaign.
19. Brzycki M (2012). Practical Approach To Strength Training. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill. New York.
20. Weir JP (2000). Youth and isokinetic testing In: Brown LE, ed., Isokinetics in human performance. 1st ed. Human Kinetics. Champaign.
21. Yun X, Bachmann ER (2006). Design, Implementation, and Experimental Results of a Quaternion-Based Kalman Filter for Human Body Motion Tracking. IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 22:1216-27.
22. Ahn SM, Jee HM, Park J (2018). Extended Kalman Filter Design for Cost Effective Bio-medical Motion Sensor. Int Conf Inv Comput Syst App. Inventive Research Organization.
23. Sachlikidis A, Salter C (2007). A biomechanical comparison of dominant and non-dominant arm throws for speed and accuracy. Sports Biomech, 6(3):334-44.
24. Lopez-Fernandez J, Garcia-Unanue J, Sanchez-Sanchez J, et al (2020). Bilateral Asymmetries Assessment in Elite and Sub-Elite Male Futsal Players. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(9):3169.
25. Thiele RM, Conchola EC, Palmer TB, et al (2015). The effects of a high-intensity free-weight back-squat exercise protocol on postural stability in resistance-trained males. J Sports Sci, 33(2):211-8.
26. Laudani L, Wood L, Casabona A, et al (2009). Effects of repeated ankle plantar-flexions on H-reflex and body sway during standing. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 19(1):85-92.
27. Yiou E, Heugas AM, Mezaour M, et al (2009). Effect of lower limb muscle fatigue induced by high-level isometric contractions on postural maintenance and postural adjustments associated with bilateral forward-reach task. Gait Posture, 29(1):97-101.
28. Bagesteiro LB, Sainburg RL (2002). Handedness: dominant arm advantages in control of limb dynamics. J Neurophysiol, 88(5):2408-21.
29. McGrath TM, Waddington G, Scarvell JM, et al (2016). The effect of limb dominance on lower limb functional performance--a systematic review. J Sports Sci, 34(4):289-302.
How to Cite
JEE H. Kinematic Comparisons of Increased Exercise Repetitions and Intensities on the Dominant and Non-Dominant Upper Limbs for Prevention of Dyskinesia. Iran J Public Health. 49(10):1878-1884.
Original Article(s)