Review Article

The Relationship between Time to Surgery (TTS) and Survival in Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Abstract

Background: Curative operation is the practical and primary therapy for masses of breast cancers. In contrast, the correlation between the time interval from breast cancer diagnosis to curative surgery and survival is still uncertain.

Methods: An electronic literature search was conducted on PubMed/Medline and EMBASE (between Jan 2000 and Jan 2020). Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) or Disease-Free Survival (DFS). The HR with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a random-effects or fixed-effects model.

Results: The combined HR for OS was 1. 10 (95% CI 1. 08-1. 11; P=0. 000) by fixed-effects model, no statistically significant heterogeneity was found (P=1. 000; I2=0%), and this difference was statistically significant (Z=11. 99; P=0. 000).

Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed a significant adverse association between more prolonged time to surgery (TTS) and lower overall survival in patients with breast cancer. It is reasonable to minimize that interval between diagnosis and curative surgery.

1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, et al (2015). Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: Sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer, 136 (5): E359-86.
2. Peto R, Davies C, Godwin J, et al (2012). Comparisons between different polychemo-therapy regimens for early breast cancer: Meta-analyses of long-term outcome among 100,000 women in 123 randomised trials. Lancet, 379 (9814): 432-44.
3. Kamaruzman NI, Aziz NA, Poh CL, et al (2019). Oncogenic signaling in tumorigene-sis and applications of siRNA nanothera-peutics in breast cancer. Cancers (Basel), 11(5):632.
4. Bashmail HA, Alamoudi AA, Noorwali A, et al (2018). Thymoquinone synergizes gem-citabine anti-breast cancer activity via modu-lating its apoptotic and autophagic activities. Sci Rep, 8 (1): 11674.
5. Kuo WY, Hwu L, Wu CY, et al (2017). STAT3/NF-κB-Regulated lentiviral TK/GCV suicide gene therapy for Cispla-tin-Resistant Triple-Negative breast cancer. Theranostics,7 (3): 647-663.
6. Cui L, Fan P, Qiu C, et al (2018). Single insti-tution analysis of incidence and risk factors for post-mastectomy pain syndrome. Sci Rep,8 (1): 11494.
7. Shin DW, Cho J, Kim SY, et al (2013). Delay to curative surgery greater than 12 weeks is associated with increased mortality in pa-tients with colorectal and breast cancer but not lung or thyroid cancer. Ann Surg Oncol, 20(8):2468-76.
8. Wagner JL, Warneke CL, Mittendorf EA, et al (2011). Delays in primary surgical treat-ment are not associated with significant tu-mor size progression in breast cancer pa-tients. Ann Surg, 254 (1): 119-24.
9. Churilla TM, Egleston BL, Murphy CT, et al (2016). Patterns of multidisciplinary care in the management of non-metastatic invasive breast cancer in the United States Medicare patient. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 160 (1): 153-162.
10. Bleicher RJ, Ruth K, Sigurdson ER, et al (2012). Preoperative delays in the US Medi-care population with breast cancer. J Clin On-col, 30 (36): 4485-92.
11. Bleicher RJ, Chang C, Wang CE, et al (2019). Treatment delays from transfers of care and their impact on breast cancer quali-ty measures. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 173 (3): 603-617.
12. Polverini AC, Nelson RA, Marcinkowski E, et al (2016). Time to treatment: Measuring quality breast cancer care. Ann Surg Oncol, 23 (10): 3392-402.
13. Smith EC, Ziogas A, Anton-Culver H (2013). Delay in surgical treatment and sur-vival after breast cancer diagnosis in young women by race/ethnicity. JAMA Surg, 148 (6): 516-23.
14. Eriksson L, Bergh J, Humphreys K, et al (2018). Time from breast cancer diagnosis to therapeutic surgery and breast cancer prognosis: A population-based cohort study. Int J Cancer, 143 (5): 1093-104.
15. Fradet Y, Aprikian A, Dranitsaris G, et al (2006). Does prolonging the time to bladder cancer surgery affect long-term cancer con-trol: A systematic review of the literature? Can J Urol, 3: 37-47.
16. Mateo AM, Mazor AM, Obeid E, et al (2020).Time to surgery and the impact of delay in the Non-Neoadjuvant setting on Triple-Negative breast cancers and other phenotypes. Ann Surg Oncol, 27 (5): 1679-92.
17. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, et al (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic re-views and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med, 6(7):e1000097.
18. Chen Z, King W, Pearcey R, et al (2008). The relationship between waiting time for radiotherapy and clinical outcomes: A sys-tematic review of the literature. Radiother On-col, 87 (1): 3-16.
19. Zhan QH, Fu JQ, Fu FM, et al (2018). Sur-vival and time to initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy among breast cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Onco-target, 9 (2): 2739-2751.
20. Yu KD, Huang S, Zhang JX, et al (2013). Association between delayed initiation of adjuvant CMF or anthracycline-based chemotherapy and survival in breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cancer, 13: 240.
21. Raphael MJ, Biagi JJ, Kong W, et al (2016). The relationship between time to initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy and survival in breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 160 (1): 17-28.
22. Stang A(2010). Critical evaluation of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for the assessment of the quality of nonrandomized studies in meta-analyses. Eur J Epidemiol, 25 (9): 603-5.
23. Higgins JPT, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, et al (2003). Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ, 327 (7414): 557-60.
24. Begg CB, Mazumdar M (1994). Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics, 50 (4): 1088-101.
25. Egger M, Smith GD, Schneider M, et al (1997). Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ, 315 (7109): 629-34.
26. Sachs D, Melchior N, Ruth K, et al (2019). Preoperative delays and outcomes in stage III breast cancer patients: Differences by histologic features. Ann Surg Oncol, 26: S78.
27. Eaglehouse YL, Georg MW, Shriver CD, et al (2019). Time to surgery and overall sur-vival after breast cancer diagnosis in a uni-versal health system. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 178(2):441-450.
28. Mansfield SA, Abdel-Rasoul M, Terando AM, et al (2017). Timing of breast cancer Surgery-How much does it matter? Breast J, 23 (4): 444-51.
29. Bleicher RJ, Ruth K, Sigurdson ER, et al (2016). Time to surgery and breast cancer survival in the United States. JAMA Oncol, 2 (3): 330-9.
30. Mateo AM, Mazor AM, Obeid E, et al (2019). Time to surgery and the impact of delay in the Non-Neoadjuvant setting on Triple-Negative breast cancers and other phenotypes. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 27(5):1679-1692.
31. Zhao J, Dong X, Hu X, et al (2016). Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correla-tion with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep, 6: 22386.
32. Parker JS, Mullins M, Cheang MC, et al (2009). Supervised risk predictor of breast cancer based on intrinsic subtypes. J Clin Oncol, 27 (8): 1160-7.
33. Lyons TG, Traina TA (2019). Emerging novel therapeutics in Triple-Negative breast cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol, 1152:377-399.
34. Chia SK, Bramwell VH, Tu D, et al (2012). A 50-gene intrinsic subtype classifier for prog-nosis and prediction of benefit from adju-vant tamoxifen. Clin Cancer Res, 18 (16): 4465-72.
35. Walle KV, Hanlon B, Stankowski-Drengler T, et al (2019).The impact of time to first breast cancer surgery on survival. Ann Surg Oncol, 26 (2): 167-68.
Files
IssueVol 50 No 9 (2021) QRcode
SectionReview Article(s)
Published2021-09-02
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v50i9.7048
Keywords
Breast cancer Time to surgery Survival Meta-analysis

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Su Y, Zheng X, Ouyang Z. The Relationship between Time to Surgery (TTS) and Survival in Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Iran J Public Health. 2021;50(9):1773-1782.