Review Article

The Relationship between Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis


Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share pathogenic mechanisms, and their lead-lag relationship remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis of data from longitudinal studies to evaluate the interactive association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library up to Feb 2019. Estimates were pooled by study quality and type of AMD and CVD. Publication bias was assessed by Begg’s test.

Results: We identified nine studies for the risk of AMD in CVD and ten studies for the risk of CVD in AMD. Overall, evidence for the risk of CVD in AMD patients was most robust. Both early and late AMD preceded CVD, but more solid significance existed in late AMD. Among the types of CVD, stroke was more tightly associated with AMD than coronary heart disease. Publication bias was not significant in either direction.

Conclusion: AMD is a risk factor for CVD, which is primarily driven by the increased risk of stroke in patients with late AMD. Moreover, these results suggested that AMD treatment and screening for CVD in AMD patients may have unexplored clinical benefits.

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IssueVol 50 No 2 (2021) QRcode
SectionReview Article(s)
Age-related macular degeneration Cardiovascular disease Meta-analysis Stroke

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How to Cite
LEE J, SUH HS, HWANG IC. The Relationship between Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis. Iran J Public Health. 50(2):219-231.