Effect of a 12-Week Rehabilitation Exercise Program on Shoulder Proprioception, Instability and Pain in Baseball Players with Shoulder Instability

  • Jin Ho Yoon Department of Sports Rehabilitation, Korea Nazarene University, Cheonan, Korea
  • Ki-Jae SONG Department of Sports Medicine, Korea National Sport University, Seoul, Korea
  • Mu-Yeop JI Department of Sports Medicine, Korea National Sport University, Seoul, Korea
  • Bang-Sub LEE Department of Sports Science, Korea Institute of Sport Science, Chungcheongbok-do, Korea
  • Jae-Keun OH Department of Sports Medicine, Korea National Sport University, Seoul, Korea
Baseball players;, Proprioception, Rehabilitation exercise program;, Shoulder instability;, Visual analog scale


Background: The shoulder joint has a wide range of motion, but is vulnerable to sport-related injuries. We aimed to evaluate the differences in the proprioception of the shoulder should instability, and shoulder pain in high school baseball players with shoulder instability following a 12-week rehabilitation exercise program.

Methods: We enrolled 13 baseball players with shoulder instability who visited the Orthopedics Department at Konkook University Hospital in Seoul, South Korea and 12 controls without shoulder instability. We examined the dominant shoulder and the non-dominant shoulder for both groups. We restricted participation to individuals who had no other orthomechanical disease in the past six months, except for instability of the shoulder, and no physical limitation to participate in the exercise. We measured the proprioception of the shoulder and shoulder instability, and we also evaluated pain with the Visual Analog Scale before and after the rehabilitation program. To verify the differences between groups, we used a two-way analysis of variance, and a two-way analysis of covariance was used when a significant difference was found at the pretest (baseline between groups).

Results: Proprioception was associated with shoulder instability. The Visual Analog Scale rating improved in the dominant shoulder with instability; and a positive change was found in the dominant shoulder without instability after the rehabilitation program (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The 12-week rehabilitation exercise program might improve the proprioception and pain of patients with shoulder instability. However, further studies with more participants and a rehabilitation exercise program should be undertaken.


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How to Cite
Yoon JH, SONG K-J, JI M-Y, LEE B-S, OH J-K. Effect of a 12-Week Rehabilitation Exercise Program on Shoulder Proprioception, Instability and Pain in Baseball Players with Shoulder Instability. Iran J Public Health. 49(8):1467-1475.
Original Article(s)