Assessing Compatibility of Growth Indices of Exclusive Breast-feeding Infants to World Health Organization Growth Standards: A Regional Study in Urban Centers of Iran
Background: Breastfeeding as a normal way provides all the nutrients for infant’s growth and development. World health organization (WHO) growth standards are definitely recommended for breastfed infants monitoring. We attempted to compare the growth of males and females exclusively breastfed infants founded on WHO standards and to assess whether the infant growth is consistent with the growth standard of WHO.
Methods: Data was roundup from two surveys, a clinic owned by a physician and four public health organization instructed from 2011-2016 containing 500 healthy infants exclusively breastfed, aged birth up to 6 months, in northeastern Iran, Mashhad.
Results: Growth criteria for male infants were significantly higher than females P<0001. Founded on WHO standards, the growth was different between female and male infant's weight at 1-2 months P=0.034. Moreover, height at birth and 5-6 months of age P=0.003 and <0.001. Furthermore, newborns’ head circumference P=0.003, and 4-5 months of age, P=0.019. There were no significant differences at the other months of age between growth indexes of males and females. Growth indexes in 70% of infants in these months of age were observed within normal range and similar to WHO standards, especially in male infants.
Conclusion: Growth indexes were similar to WHO standards. However, in Iran, these breastfed growth standards are not respected. Implementing WHO standards may have important implications for child health programs, which leads to monitoring of correct growth of breastfed infants and preserving exclusive breastfeeding with developing nutritional intervention program.
2. Silvers KM, Frampton CM, Wickens K, et al (2009). Breastfeeding protects against adverse respiratory outcomes at 15 months of age. Matern Child Nutr, 5(3):243-50.
3. Bener A, Denic S, Galadari S (2001). Longer breast-feeding and protection against childhood leukaemia and lymphoma. Eur J Cancer, 37(2):234-8.
4. Ivarsson A, Hernell O, Stenlund H et al (2002). Breast-feeding protects against celiac disease. Am J Clin Nutr, 75(5):914-21.
5. Labayen I, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB et al (2012). Exclusive breastfeeding duration and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr, 95(2):498-505.
6. Garwood P, Alexander N (2018). WHO and UNICEF issue new guidance to promote breastfeeding in health facilities globally, News Release, Geneva.
7. Brion M-JA, Lawlor DA, Matijasevich A et al (2011). What are the causal effects of breastfeeding on IQ, obesity and blood pressure? Evidence from comparing high-income with middle-income cohorts. Int J Epidemiol, 40(30):670-80.
8. González-Jiménez E1, García PA, Aguilar MJ et al (2014). Breastfeeding and the prevention of breast cancer: a retrospective review of clinical histories. J Clin Nurs, 23(17-18):2397-403.
9. Liu B, Jorm L, Banks E (2010). Parity, breastfeeding and the subsequent risk of maternal type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 33(6):1239-41.
10. Stuebe AM (2015). Does breastfeeding prevent the metabolic syndrome, or does the metabolic syndrome prevent breastfeeding? Semin Perinatol, 39(4): 290–95.
11. Science News from research organizations (2014). Breastfeeding associated with lower risk of rheumatoid arthritis, according to new study. University of Oxford. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140107093037.htm
12. Bryant CA ( 2006). Nursing the adopted infant. J Am Board Fam Med,19(4):374-9.
13. Aslam M PZ, Tarwich-Islami S, Nasserian H etal (2006). An Experience with Induced Lactation in a nulliparous woman. Annual .Gernsheimer Research Competition, Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center, NY. https://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/profiles/display/1127665
14. Kelly Bonyata,BS,IBCLC ( 2018). Average Growth Patterns of Breastfed Babies . Do breastfed babies grow slower? https://kellymom.com/health/growth/growthcharts
15. de Onis M, Garza C, Onyango AW et al (2007). Comparison of the WHO child growth standards and the CDC 2000 growth charts. J Nutr, 137(1):144-8.
16. de Onis M, Garza C, Victora CG et al (2004). The WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study: planning, study design, and methodology. Food Nutr Bull, 25(1 Suppl):S15-26.
17. Grummer-Strawn LM, Reinold C, Krebs NF et al (2010). Use of World Health Organization and CDC growth charts for children aged 0-59 months in the United States. MMWR Recomm Rep, 59(RR-9):1-15.
18. Tarvij Eslami S, Nassirian H, Danesh Amuze H (2013).Comparing growth indices between exclusive breastfed infants≤ 6 months and growth standards of National Center Health Statistics in Iran. Medical Science Journal of Islamic Azad Univesity-Tehran Medical Branch, 23(4):262-68.
19. Kulaga Z, Litwin M, Tkaczyk M et al (2010). The height-, weight-, and BMI-for-age of Polish school-aged children and adolescents relative to international and local growth references. BMC Public Health, 10:109.
20. Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM (2015). Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics.7th ed. Saunders,Philadelphia, pp: 10-13.
21. Feigelman S (2016). The first year In: Nelson Text book of Pediatrics.Eds, Kligeman RM JH, Behrman RE , Stanton B. 20 th ed, Saunders.Philadelphia : pp: 65–70.
22. Otaigbe B, Alikor E, Nkanginieme K (2005). Growth pattern of exclusively breastfed infants in the first six months of life: a study of babies delivered at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria. Niger J Med, 14(2):137-45.
23. Marques RF, Lopez FA, Braga JA )2004). Growth of exclusively breastfed infants in the first 6 months of life. J Pediatr (Rio J), 80(2):99-105.
24. van Dijk CE, Innis SM (2009). Growth-curve standards and the assessment of early excess weight gain in infancy. Pediatrics, 123(1):102-8.
25. Roelants M, Hauspie R, Hoppenbrouwers K (2010). Breastfeeding, growth and growth standards: performance of the WHO growth standards for monitoring growth of Belgian children. Ann Hum Biol, 37(1):2-9.
26. De Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E et al (2006). WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group.Comparison of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards and the National Center for Health Statistics/WHO international growth reference: implications for child health programmes. Public Health Nutr, 9(7):942-7.
27. Tanaka H, Ishii H, Yamada T et al (2013). Growth of Japanese breastfed infants compared to national references and World Health Organization growth standards. Acta Paediatr, 102(7):739-43.
28. Riedlová J, Vignerová J , Paulová M, et al (2017). Body parameters of Czech breastfed children compared to the Czech references and WHO growth standards. Ann Hum Biol, 44(7):593-599.
29. Saha KK, Frongillo EA, Alam DS et al (2009). Use of the new World Health Organization child growth standards to describe longitudinal growth of breastfed rural Bangladeshi infants and young children. Food Nutr Bull, 30(2):137-44.
30. Dwipoerwantoro PG, Mansyur M, Oswari H et al (2015). Growth of Indonesian Infants Compared With World Health Organization Growth Standards. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 61(2): 248–52.
31. Natale V, Rajagopalan A (2014). Worldwide variation in human growth and the World Health Organization growth standards: a systematic review. BMJ Open, 4(1):e003735.
32. WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2006). WHO Child Growth Standards based on length/height, weight and age. Acta Paediatr Suppl, 450:76-85.
33. Júlíusson PB, Roelants M, Hoppenbrouwers K et al (2011). Growth of Belgian and Norwegian children compared to the WHO growth standards: prevalence below -2 and above +2 SD and the effect of breastfeeding. Arch Dis Child, 96(10):916-21.
34. Silveira CR, Beghetto MG, Carvalho PR et al (2011). Comparison of NCHS, CDC and WHO growth charts in the nutritional assessment of hospitalized children up to five years old. Nutr Hosp, 26(3):465-71.
35. Nuruddin R, Lim MK, Hadden WC et al (2009). Comparison of estimates of under-nutrition for pre-school rural Pakistani children based on the WHO standard and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference. Public Health Nutr, 12(5):716-22.
36. Schwarz NG, Grobusch MP, Decker ML et al (2008). WHO 2006 child growth standards: implications for the prevalence of stunting and underweight-for-age in a birth cohort of Gabonese children in comparison to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts and the National Center for Health Statistics 1978 growth references. Public Health Nutr, 11(7):714-9.
|Issue||Vol 49 No 3 (2020)|
|Breastfeeding Growth World health organization Standard Infant|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|