Public Health and Tourism; A Personalist Approach to Community Well-Being: A Narrative Review
Given concerns over the public and individual health status of modern society and the scarcity of research on mobility and the health nexus, taking a personalist perspective grounded in spillover theory integrated with broaden-and-build theory, this study uses preventive science ideology and explores the links between tourism and public health through the illustration of the effects of travel on people’s personal, mental, and social well-being (PMS-web). A comprehensive review of the literature which is based on themes initiated from WHO (1948) statement: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” was adopted. Physical, mental, and social (PMS) well-being and tourism/travel keywords were used to search top tier journal articles via the Web of Science and google scholars’ search engines. Findings revealed that a positive linkage exists between travel/tourism and the PMS well-being of individuals that contribute considerably to their state of health per se and is vital to the public health in societies. Although the reviewed tourism literature includes plentiful studies on health/medical tourism or the health issues of host/guests, the lack of focus on the nexus of tourism and public health is sensible.
2. Connell J (2006). Medical tourism: Sea, sun, sand and… surgery. Tourism Manage, 27(6): 1093-1100.
3. Herrick DM (2007). Medical tourism: Global compe-tition in health care. National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA). http://www.ncpathinktank.org/pub/st304?pg=5
4. Hall CM (2011). Health and medical tourism: a kill or cure for global public health? Tourism Rev, 66(1/2): 4-15.
5. Rokni L, Turgay A, Park SH (2017). Barriers of De-veloping Medical Tourism in a Destination: A Case of South Korea. Iran J Public Health, 46(7): 930-937.
6. Smith M, Puczkó L (2008). Health and wellness tourism. London: Routledge.
7. Acheson D (1988). Report of the Committee of In-quiry into the future development of the Public Health functions and Community Medicine.
8. Taboada, P, Cuddeback KF, Donohue-White, P (Eds.) (2013). Person, society and value: towards a personal-ist concept of health. Springer Science & Business Me-dia, B.V.
9. Petrini C (2010). Theoretical models and operational frameworks in public health ethics. Int J Env Res Pub He, 7(1): 189-202.
10. Andrews FM, Withey SB (1976). Social indicators of well-being. New York: Plenum Press.
11. Campbell A, Converse PE, Rodgers WJ (1976). The quality of American life: Perceptions, evaluations, and satisfac-tion. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
12. Fredrickson BL (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology- the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Am Psychol, 56(3): 218-226.
13. Institute of Medicine (1988). The Future of Public Health. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
14. (WHO) World Health Organization (2014). Basic Documents. Available from:http://apps.who.int/gb/bd/PDF/bd48/basic-documents-48th-edition-en.pdf#page=1
15. Detels R, Breslow L (2002). 1.1 Current scope and concerns in public health. Available from:http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/faculty/detels/PH150/Detels_1.1_OxfordPH.pdf
16. Wynia MK (2005). Oversimplifications I: Physicians don't do public health. The Am J Bioethics, 5(4): 4-5.
17. Coleman CH, Bouëssau MC, Reis A (2008). The contribution of ethics to public health. B World Health Organ, 86 (8): 578-579.
18. Arah OA (2009). On the relationship between indi-vidual and population health. Med Health Care Phil, 12(3): 235-244.
19. Petrini C, Gainotti S, Requena P (2010). Personalism for public health ethics. Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanità, 46(2): 204-209.
20. Coie JD, Watt NF, West SG et al (1993). The science of prevention: a conceptual framework and some directions for a national research program. Am Psychol, 48(10): 10-13-22.
21. Pearce PL (2012). The experience of visiting home and familiar places. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2): 1024-1047.
22. Mitas O, Yarnal C, Adams R, Ram N (2012). Taking “peak” at leisure travellers’ positive emotions. Lei-sure Sci, 34(2): 115–135.
23. Nawijn J (2010). The holiday happiness curve: A pre-liminary investigation into mood during a holiday abroad. Int J Tour Res, 12(3): 281–290.
24. Sirgy M, Joseph P, Stephanes Kruger et al (2010). How Does a Travel Trip Affect Tourists’ Life Sat-isfaction? J Travel Res, 50 (3): 261-75.
25. Rezapouraghdam H, Alipour H, Arasli H (2019). Workplace spirituality and organization sustainabil-ity: a theoretical perspective on hospitality employ-ees’ sustainable behavior. Nvironment. Development and Sustainability, 21:1583–1601.
26. Dehdari S, Hajimehdipoor H (2018). Medicinal Properties of Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. In Traditional Medicine and Modern Phytotherapy: A Review Article. Iran J Public Health, 47(2): 188-197.
27. Rezapouraghdam H, Behravesh E, Ari E, Doh WL (2018). Cost-benefit analysis of educational tour-ism in North Cyprus: a qualitative study of the so-cio-economic impacts. e-Review of Tourism Research, 15(6): 457-479.
28. Hobson J, S Perry, Uta C Dietrich (1995). Tourism, Health and Quality of Life. J Travel Tour Mark, 3 (4): 21-38.
29. Chen CC, Petrick JF (2013). Health and wellness benefits of travel experiences: A literature review. J Travel Res, 52(5): 709–719.
30. English Tourism Council (2002). Health Benefits Fact File. London: ETC.
31. Horner S, Swarbrooke J (1998). The Health Tourism Market, Insights, the Tourism Marketing Intelligence Services 1997/98. London: ETB/BTA.
32. Mintel (2000). Mintel Reports provides robust insight and recommendations based on in-depth market stud. Available from: URL https://reports.mintel.com/homepages/guest/
33. Hunter-Jones P, Blackburn A (2007). Understanding the relationship between holiday taking and self-assessed health: an exploratory study of senior tourism. Int J Consum Stud, 31(5): 509-516.
34. Ohe Y, Ikei H, Song C, Miyazaki Y (2017). Evaluating the relaxation effects of emerging forest-therapy tourism: A multidisciplinary approach. Tourism Manage, 62: 322-334.
35. Norwood P, Eberth B, Farrar, S, Anable, J, Lud-brook, A (2014). Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: An evaluation. Soc Sci Med, 113: 50-58.
36. Yang L, Panter J, Griffin SJ, Ogilvie D (2012). Asso-ciations between active commuting and physical activity in working adults: cross-sectional results from the commuting and health in Cambridge study. Prev Med, 55: 453-457.
37. Pucher J, Buehler R, Bassett D, Dannenberg AL (2010). Walking and cycling to health: a compara-tive analysis of city, state, and international data. Am J Public Health, 100: 1986-1992.
38. Bassett Jr D R, Pucher J, Buehler R, Thompson DL, Crouter S.E (2008). Walking, cycling, and obesity rates in Europe, North America, and Australia. J Phys Act Health, 5: 795–814.
39. Olsson L E, Gärling T, Ettema D, Friman M, Fujii S (2013). Happiness and satisfaction with work commute. Soc Indic Res, 111(1): 255–263.
40. Mao Z, Ettema D, Dijst M (2016). Commuting trip satisfaction in Beijing: Exploring the influence of multimodal behavior and modal flexibility. Trans-portation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 94: 592-603.
41. St-Louis E, Manaugh K, van Lierop D, El-Geneidy A (2014). The happy commuter: a comparison of commuter satisfaction across modes. Transporta-tion research part F: traffic psychology and behavior, 26: 160-170.
42. Martin A, Goryakin Y, Suhrcke M (2014). Does ac-tive commuting improve psychological wellbeing? Longitudinal evidence from eighteen waves of the British household panel survey. Prev Med, 69: 296–303.
43. US Department of Health and Human Services (2008). Physical activity. Available from: http://www.health.gov/paguidelines
44. Department of Health and Social Care (2011). Health research ethics committees: governance arrange-ments. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/health-research-ethics-committees-governance-arrangements
45. Handy S, van Wee B, Kroesen M (2014). Promoting cycling for transport: research needs and challeng-es. Transp Rev A, 34(1): 4–24.
46. Sælensminde K (2004). Cost-benefit analyses of walking and cycling track networks taking in to ac-count in security, health effects and external costs of motorized traffic. Transp. Res Part A, 38 (8): 593–606.
47. Fritz C, Sonnentag S (2006). Recovery, Well- Being, and Performance-Related Outcomes: The Role of Workload and Vacation Experiences. J Appl Psychol, 91 (4): 36-45.
48. Sonnentag S, Charlotte F (2007). The Recovery Ex-perience Questionnaire: Development and Vali-dation of a Measure for Assessing Recuperation. J Travel Res, 49 (2): 46-60.
49. Tokarchuk O, Roberto G, Oswin M (2016). Tour-ism intensity impact on satisfaction with life. Of German residents. Tourism Econ, 22(6): 1315–1331.
50. Kler BK (2009). Tourism and restoration. In J. Tribe (Ed.), Philosophical issues in tourism. pp.: 117–134. Bris-tol: Channel View Publications.
51. Lehto XY (2013). Assessing the perceived restorative qualities of vacation destinations. J Travel Res, 52 (3): 325–339.
52. Etzion D (2003). Annual vacation: Duration of relief from job stressors and burnout. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 16 (2): 213–226.
53. Kühnel J, Sonnentag, S (2011). How Long Do You Benefit from Vacation? A Closer Look at the Fade-out of Vacation Effects. J Organ Behav, 32 (1): 125-43.
54. Westman M, Eden D (1997). Effects of a Respite from Work on Burnout: Vacation Relief and Fade-Out. J Appl Psychol, 82 (4): 516-27.
55. Hobfoll SE (1998). Stress, Culture, and Community: The Psychology and Physiology of Stress. New York: Plenum.
56. Westman M, Etzion D (2002). The Impact of Short Overseas Business Trips on Job Stress and Burnout. Applied Psychology, 51 (4): 582-92.
57. Westman M, Etzion D, Gattenio E (2008). Interna-tional Business Travels and the Work-Family In-terface: A Longitudinal Study. J Occup Organ Psych, 81 (3): 459-80.
58. Laing JH, Frost W (2017). Journeys of well-being: Women's travel narratives of transformation and self-discovery in Italy. Tourism Manage, 62: 110–119.
59. Van WB, Ettema D (2016). Travel behavior and health: A conceptual model and research agenda. J Transp Health, (3): 240–248.
60. Kay SM, Diekmann A (2017). Tourism and wellbe-ing. Ann Tourism Res,66: 1-13.
61. Seligman MEP (2002). Authentic Happiness. New York: Free Press.
62. The Ecotourism Society (TIES) (1990). What is eco-torism. Available from: https://ecotourism.org/
63. Sharpley R (2014). Host perceptions of tourism: A review of the research. Tourism Manage, 42: 37–49.
64. Kim K, Uysal M, Sirgy M. J (2013). How does tour-ism in a community impact the quality of life of community residents? Tourism Manage, 36: 527-540.
65. Woo E, Kim H, Uysal M (2015). Life satisfaction and support for tourism development. Ann Tourism Res, 50 (1): 84–97.
66. Wall G, Mathieson A (2006). Tourism: Changes, Impacts, and Opportunities. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall.
67. McCabe S (2009). Who needs a holiday? Evaluating social tourism. Ann Tourism Res, 36(4): 667–688.
68. Minnaert L, Stacey J, Quinn B, Griffin K (2010). Social tourism for low-income groups: Benefits in a UK and Irish con-text. In S. Cole & N. Morgan (Eds.), Tourism and Inequality: Problems and Prospects pp.: 126–142. Ox-ford: CABI.
69. Quinn B, Stacey J (2010). The benefits of holidaying for children experiencing social exclusion: Recent Irish evidence. Leisure Stud, 29(1): 29–52.
70. Sedgley D, Pritchard A, Morgan N (2012). Tourism poverty in affluent societies. Tourism Manage, 33(4): 951–960.
71. Heintzman P, Patriquin E (2012). Leisure and social and spiritual wellbeing. In HJ Gibson JF. Singleton (Eds.), Leisure and aging: Theory and practice. pp.: 159–178. Champaign/Illinois: Human Kinetics.
72. NPFA (2009). We are all- Americans stronger togeth-er. Available from: http://www.newton.k12.in.us/hs/pe/images/physical-fitness-guide.pdf
73. Fries JF, Koop CE, Beadle CE et al (1993). Reducing health care costs by reducing the need and de-mand for medical services. N Engl J Med, 329 (5): 321-325.