Comparison of Head and Neck Cancer Distribution in Turkish and Syrian Populations
Background: Although oral health improves in several countries, global problems are still present. Predictably, the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries have high rate of malign disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of head and neck cancers (HNCs) and to compare them between Syrian and Turkish population.
Methods: A total of 4570 patients confirmed to have HNC histopathologically from Hatay Mustafa Kemal University Hospital Pathology report archive were retrospectively evaluated. Among them, 452 were Syrian patients while 4118 were Turkish patients. Data were collected from 2010 to 2017. Gender and age information were taken from medical records. According to the pathological results, HNCs were classified.
Results: In 474 patients, HNCs were inscriptived, of which 317 were in males and 157 in females aged 23–80 years with histologically approved cancer of head and neck area. Overall, 100 were Syrian patients while 374 were Turkish patients. In both Syrian and Turkish patients, the most observed HNC was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
Conclusion: Nowadays, the prevalence of cancer is higher because of the excessive consumption of alcohol, tobacco, chewing, and smoking. For the higher cancer incidence in Syrian refugees, we thought that the impact of war such as stress may have been effective as well as the known several etiologic factors of cancer. For the increased risk of cancer, the early diagnosis of this become more important.
2. Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J et al (2005). Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin, 55 (2):74-108.
3. Ries LAG, Melbert D, Krapcho M et al (eds) (1975-2004). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2004, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2004/. Based on November 2006 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2007.
4. Shiboski CH, Schmidt BL, Jordan RC (2005). Tongue and tonsil carcinoma: in-creasing trends in the US population ages 20-44 years. Cancer, 103:1843-49.
5. Wissinger E, Griebsch I, Lungershausen J, Foster T, Pashos CL (2014). The Eco-nomic Burden of Head and Neck Can-cer: A Systematic Literature Review. Phar-macoeconomics, 32 (9):865-82.
6. World Health Organization (2012). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: volume 100B-Biological Agents. A review of human carcinogens. Lyon: Interna-tional Agency for Research on Cancer.
7. Ho JH (1978). An epidemiologic and clinical study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 4 (3-4):182-98.
8. Ramsey SD, Berry K, Moinpour C et al (2002). Quality of life in long term survi-vors of colorectal cancer. Am J Gastroen-terol, 97:1228 –34.
9. Hammerlid E, Taft C (2001). Health-related quality of life in long-term head and neck cancer survivors: a comparison with gen-eral population norms. Br J Cancer, 84:149 –56.
10. Gotay CC, Muraoka MY (1998).Quality of life in long-term survivors of adult-onset cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst, 90:656–67.
11. Macfarlane GJ, Boyle P, Scully C (1992). Oral cancer in Scotland: changing inci-dence and mortality. BMJ, 305:1121-3.
12. Franchesci S, Levi F, Lucchini F (1994).Trends in cancer mortality in young adults in Europe, 1955-1989. Eur J Cancer, 30A:2096-118.
13. Shiboski CH, Shiboski SC, Silverman SJr (2000). Trends in oral cancer rates in the United States, 1973-1996. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 28:249-56.
14. Sunny L, Yeole BB, Hakama M et al (2004). Oral cancers in Mumbai, India: a fifteen years perspective with respect to inci-dence trend and cumulative risk. Asian Pa-cific J Cancer Prev, 5 (3):294-300.
15. Gaitán-Cepeda LA, Peniche-Becerra AG, Quezada-Rivera D (2011).Trends in fre-quency and prevalence of oral cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma in Mexi-cans. A 20 years retrospective study. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal, 16 (1):e1-5.
16. Davies L, Welch HG (2006). Epidemiology of head and neck cancer in the United States. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 135 (3):451-7.
17. Blomberg M, Nielsen A, Munk C et al (2011).Trends in head and neck cancer incidence in Denmark, 1978-2007: focus on human papillomavirus associated sites. Int J Cancer, 129 (3):733-41.
18. Marur S, Forastiere AA (2008). Head and neck cancer: Changing epidemiology, di-agnosis, and treatment. Mayo Clin Proc, 83:489–501.
19. Patel SG, Shah JP (2005). TNM staging of cancers of the head and neck: striving for uniformity among diversity. CA Cancer J Clin, 55: 242–58.
20. Ng SH, Yen TC, Chang JT et al (2006). Pro-spective study of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emis-sion tomography and computed tomog-raphy and magnetic resonance imaging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with palpably negative neck. J Clin Oncol, 24: 4371–76.
21. Branstetter BF, Blodgett TM, Zimmer LA et al (2005). Head and neck malignancy: is PET/CT more accurate than PET or CT alone? Radiology, 235: 580–86.
22. Fatourechi V (2014). Thyroid and Parathy-roid Office Based Ultrasonography- Re-view Article. Iran J Public Health, 43 (1):11-18.
23. Vokes EE, Weichselbaum RR, Lippman SM et al (1993). Head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med, 328: 184–94.
24. Fortin A, Couture C, Doucet Ret al (2001). Does histologic grade have a role in the management of head and neck cancers?.J Clin Oncol, 19: 4107–16.
25. Ward EC, van As-Brooks CJ, editors (2006). Head and neck cancer: Treatment, rehabilitation, and outcomes. San Diego (CA): Plural Pub-lishing.
26. Chow SL, Ting AS, Su TT (2014). Develop-ment of conceptual framework to understand fac-tors associated with return to work among cancer survivors: a systematic review. Iran J Public Health, 43:391-405.
27. Bukhari MA, Ahmed EE, Melibary R (2017). The most Common Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital Emergency De-partment (Tertiary Hospital). Kuwait Med J, 49 (4): 299 – 301.
28. Chida Y, Hamer M, Wardle J et al (2008).Do stress-related psychosocial factors con-tribute to cancer incidence and survival?. Nat Clin Pract Oncol, 5 (8):466-75.