Seroprevalence of Toxocara Infection in Association with Differ-ent Risk Factors among Children of 4-12 Years Old Referred to Some Medical Centers in Aras Free Zone, Northwest Iran

  • Elham Yousefi Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Bagher Rokni Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Khosrow Hazrati Tappeh 1. Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran 2. Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
  • Mehdi Mohebali Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Shahram Khademvatan 1. Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran 2. Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
  • Farzaneh Zahabiun Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Eshrat Beygom Kia Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Keywords:
Seroprevalence;, Toxocariosis;, Risk-factors;, Children;, Iran

Abstract

Background: Toxocariosis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval stage of Toxocara species from dog and cat. It has a worldwide distribution with higher prevalence in children. This study aimed to determine seroprevalence of Toxocara infection and its association with some risk factors among children of Aras Free Zone (Jolfa City) in Northwest of Iran.

Methods: Sera were collected from 514 children aged 4–12 yr old attending to some medical centers in the study area from May 2018 to Feb 2019. Anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies assay was performed using commercial ELISA kit (Nova Tec, Germany). The seropositivity rate was determined and its association with different demographic criteria and risk factors were statistically analyzed.

Results: The overall seroprevalence was 2.3% (12/514). Risk factors of children’s age group and contact with either pet animals (dog and cat) and/or soil were significantly associated with seropositivity. However, there was not any relationship between Toxocara infection and gender of children, place of residency (urban or rural) and their mothers’ education level.

Conclusion: Both girls and boys are at risk of Toxocara infection in the study area. Younger age of childhood and contact with sources of infection were important associated factors. More probably, additional criteria are involved in the initiation of infection.

References

1. Magnaval JF, Glickman LT, Dorchies P et al (2001). Highlights of human toxocariasis. Korean J Parasitol, 39(1):1-11.
2. Gueglio B, de Gentile L, Nguyen JM et al (1994). Epidemiologic approach to hu-man toxocariasis in western France. Para-sitol Res, 80(6):531-6.
3. Macpherson CN (2013). The epidemiology and public health importance of toxocari-asis: a zoonosis of global importance. Int J Parasitol, 43(12):999-1008.
4. Despommier D (2003). Toxocariasis: clinical aspects, epidemiology, medical ecology, and molecular aspects. Clin Microbiol Rev, 16(2):265-72.
5. Nicoletti A (2013). Toxocariasis. Handb Clin Neurol. 114:217–28.
6. Fan CK, Liao CW, Cheng YC (2013). Fac-tors affecting disease manifestation of toxocarosis in humans: genetics and en-vironment. Vet Parasitol, 14:342-352.
7. Gavignet B, Piarroux R, Aubin F, Millon L, Humbert P (2008). Cutaneous manifesta-tions of human toxocariasis. J Am Acad Dermatol, 59 (6):1031-42
8. Kwon NH, Oh MJ, Lee SP, Lee BJ, Choi DC (2006). The prevalence and diagnos-tic value of toxocariasis in unknown eo-sinophilia. Ann Hematol, 85(4):233-8.
9. Fillaux J, Magnaval JF (2013). Laboratory di-agnosis of human toxocariasis. Vet Para-sitol, 193(4):327-36.
10. Pestehchian N, Rasouli A, Yousefi HA (2012). Distribution of intestinal worms among stray dogs in Isfahan, Iran. J Isfa-han Med Sch, 29:2827–2833.
11. Sardarian K, Maghsood AH, Ghiasian SA, Zahirnia AH (2015). Prevalence of zoon-otic intestinal parasites in household and stray dogs in rural areas of Hamadan, Western Iran. Trop Biomed, 32:240–246
12. Mikaeili F, Mirhendi H, Hosseini M, Asgari Q, Kia EB (2013). Toxocara nematodes in stray cats from Shiraz, southern Iran: intensity of infection and molecular iden-tification of the isolates. Iran J Parasitol, 8:593–600
13. Meshgi B, Jamshidi S, Saadati D, Hooshyar H, Bokaie S (2014). An overview of Tox-ocara cati infection in stray cats in the metropolitan region of Tehran, Iran, and a comparison of two diagnostic meth-ods. Iran J Vet Med, 4:53–56.
14. Khademvatan S, Abdizadeh R, Tavalla M (2014). Molecular characterization of Toxocara spp from soil of public areas in Ahvaz southwestern Iran. Acta Trop, 135:50–4
15. Zibaei M, Sadjjadi SM (2006). Prevalence of Helminth Ova in Soil Samples From Public Places in Shiraz. East Mediterr Health J, 12(5):562-5.
16. Fallah M, Azimi A, Taherkhani H (2007). Se-roprevalence of Toxocariasis in Children Aged 1-9 Years in Western Islamic Re-public of Iran, 2003. East Mediterr Health J, 13(5):1073-7.
17. 17. Akhlaghi L, Ourmazdi H, Sarafnia A et al (2006). An investigation on the toxocaria-sis seroprevalence in children (2-12 years-old) from Mahidasht area of Kerman-shah Province (2003-2004. RJMS, 13(52): 41-48.
18. Sadjjadi SM, Khosravi M, Mehrabani D, Oryan A (2000). Seroprevalence of Toxo-cara infection in school children in Shiraz, southern Iran. J Trop Pediatr, 46(6):327-30.
19. Weatherhead JE, Hotez PJ (2015). Worm in-fections in children. Pediatr Rev, 36(08):341–352.
20. Pollard ZF, Jarrett WH, Hagler WS, Allain DS, Schantz PM (1979). ELISA for diag-nosis of ocular toxocariasis. Ophthalmology, 86(5):743-52.
21. Nunes CM, Tundisi RN, García JF (1997). Cross reactions between Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum in the diagnosis of vis-ceral larva migrans by western blotting technique. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo, 39(5):253-6.
22. Stensvold CR, Skov J, Moller LN et al (2009). Seroprevalence of human toxoca-riasis in Denmark. Clin Vaccine Immunol, 16(9):1372–3
23. Abo-Shehada MN, Sharif L, el-Sukhon SN et al (1992).Seroprevalence of Toxocara ca-nis antibodies in humans in northern Jor-dan. J Helminthol, 66(01):75–78
24. Dogan N, Dinleyici E.C, BOR O et al (2007). Seroepidemiological survey for Toxocara canis infection in the northwest-ern Part of Turkey. Turkiye Parazitol Derg, 31 (4): 288-291.
25. Gabrielli S, Tasić-Otašević S, Ignjatović A et al (2017). Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxocara canisinfection in Serbia dur-ing 2015. Foodborne Pathog Dis,14(01):43–49
26. Magnaval JF, Michault A, Calon N, Charlet JP (1994). Epidemiology of human toxo-cariasis in La Reunion. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 88(5):531–3.
27. Hosseini-Safa A, Mousavi SM, Badorani MBB et al (2015). Seroepidemiology of Toxocariasis in Children (5–15 yr Old) Referred to the Pediatric Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Iran J Parasitol, 10(4):632-7.
28. Garedaghi Y (2014). Seroepidemiology of human toxocariasis in children in East-Azerbaijan province, Iran. IJAVMS, 8(1):6-11.
29. Sharif M, Daryani A, Barzegar G, Nasrolahei M, Khalilian A (2010). Seroprevalence of toxocariasis in schoolchildren in North-ern Iran. Pak J Biol Sci, 13(4):180-4.
30. Alavi SM, Hosseini SA, Rahdar M et al (2011).Determination of seroprevalence rate of Toxocaracanis in 6–15years aged rural and urban school children in Ahvaz, Iran. JUNDISHAPUR SCIENTIFIC MEDICAL JOURNAL, 3(72):240–248
31. Zarnowska H, Borecka A, Gawor J et al (2008). A serological and epidemiological evaluation of risk factors for toxocariasis in children in central Poland. J Helminthol, 82(2):123-7.
32. Baboolal S, Rawlins S C (2002). Seropreva-lence of toxocariasis in schoolchildren in Trinidad. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 96(2). 139–143,
33. Teixeira C R, Chieffi P P, Lescano S A Z et al (2006). Frequency and risk factors for toxocariasis in children from a pediatric outpatient center in Southeastern Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo, 48 (5): 251–255.
34. Malla N, Aggarwal A, Mahajan R (2002). A serological study of human toxocariasis in north India. Natl Med J India, 15(3):145-7.
35. Bundy DAP, Thompson DE, Robertson BD, Cooper, ES (1987). Age-relationships of Toxocara Canis Sero-positivity and Geohelminth Infection Prevalence in Two Communities in St. Lucia, West Indies. Trop Med Parasit, 38: 309-312.
36. Romero Nunez C, Mendoza Martinez GD, Yanez Arteaga S et al (2013). Prevalence and risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection in children. Scientific-WorldJournal, 572089.
37. Alderete JM, Jacob CM, Pastorino AC et al (2003). Prevalence of Toxocara infection in schoolchildren from the Butanta re-gion, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, 98(5):593–7.
38. Mazur-Melewska K, Mania A, Figlerowicz M et al (2012). The influence of age on a clinical presentation of Toxocara spp. in-fection in children. Ann Agric Environ Med, 19(02):233–236
39. Won KY, Kruszon-Moran D, Schantz PM, Jones JL (2008). National seroprevalence and risk factors for zoonotic Toxocara spp. infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 79(4):552-7.
40. Momeni T, Mahami-Oskouei M, Fallah E et al (2016). Latent and asymptomatic toxo-cara infection among young population in Northwest Iran: The necessity of in-forming people as a potential health risk. Scientifica (Cairo), 3562056
41. Negri EC, Santarém VA, Rubinsky-Elefant G et al (2013). Anti-Toxocara spp. Anti-bodies in an adult healthy population: se-rosurvey and risk factors in Southeast Brazil. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 3(3):211-216.
42. Nourian A, Amiri M (2009). Seroepidemiol-ogy toxocariasis in children 2 to 15 years old referring to health centers and hospi-tals of Zanjan province in 1386. J Med, 47:131–134.
43. MB Rokni, J Massoud, Gh Mowlavi (2000). Report of 10 cases of visceral larva mi-grans in Iran. Iran J Public Health, 29(1-4):61-66.
Published
2020-06-30
How to Cite
1.
Yousefi E, Rokni MB, Hazrati Tappeh K, Mohebali M, Khademvatan S, Zahabiun F, Kia EB. Seroprevalence of Toxocara Infection in Association with Differ-ent Risk Factors among Children of 4-12 Years Old Referred to Some Medical Centers in Aras Free Zone, Northwest Iran. Iran J Public Health. 49(7):1307-1315.
Section
Original Article(s)