Original Article

Differences in Health-Related Quality of Life of Adults with Cardiovascular or Metabolic Diseases Compared to the General Population


Background: We aimed to compare demographic, health-related characteristics, and quality of life between adults with cardiovascular or metabolic diseases and the general population.

Methods: Data from 25,712 adults assessed on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V & VI (2010–2013) were analyzed for differences in health-related quality of life.

Results: The corrected EuroQol-5 Dimension score mean among participants with cardiovascular or metabolic diseases was significantly lower than for the general population across all five dimensions (P<0.001). Individuals with cardiovascular disease had lower quality of life than those with metabolic diseases.

Conclusion: Adults with cardiovascular or metabolic diseases reported lower health-related quality of life in all domains when compared to adults in the general population. Therefore, interventions and management to improve quality of life among patients with cardiovascular or metabolic diseases are necessary.






1. Statistics Korea (2018). Causes of death sta-tistics in 2017. Daejeon: Statistics Korea, pp. 7-8 (Korean). http://kostat.go.kr/portal/korea/kor_nw/1/1/index.-board?bmode=read&bSeq=&aSeq=370710&pageNo=1&row-Num=10&navCount=10&currPg=&sTarget=title&sTxt=%EC%82%AC%EB%A7%9D+%EC%9B%90%EC%9D%B8
2. National Center for Health Statistics (2016). Health, United States, 2016 with chart-book on long-term trends in health. At-lanta: National Center for Health Statis-tics. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus/index.htm
3. Townsend N, Nichols M, Scarborough, P et al (2015). Cardiovascular disease in Eu-rope—epidemiological update 2015. Eur Heart J, 36: 2696-2705. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehv428
4. Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS et al (2016). Executive summary: Heart disease and stroke statistics-2016 update: A re-port from the American Heart Associa-tion. Circulation, 133: 447-54. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000366
5. Mathieu P, Lemieux I, Després JP (2010). Obesity, inflammation, and cardiovascu-lar risk. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 87: 407-16. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.311
6. Grundy SM (2008). Metabolic syndrome pandemic. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 28: 629-36. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.107.151092
7. World Health Organization (2008). Preven-tion of cardiovascular disease: Guidelines for assessment and management of car-diovascular risk. Geneva, Switzerland: Au-thor.
8. Bradley SM, Rumsfeld JS (2015). Depression and cardiovascular disease. Trends Cardio-vasc Med, 25: 614-22. doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2015.02.002
9. Kim K, Hwang SY (2017). Impact of physi-cal activity, central obesity and depression on the quality of life according to the presence of cardiovascular risk among menopausal middle-aged women: Sec-ondary data analysis. Korean Journal of Adult Nursing, 29 (4): 382-92. doi:10.7475/kjan.2017.29.4.382
10. Ko HY, Lee JK, Shin JY et al (2015). Health-related quality of life and cardiovascular disease risk in Korean adults. Korean J Fam Med, 36: 349-56. doi: 10.4082/kjfm.2015.36.6.349
11. Liu K, Daviglus ML, Loria CM et al (2012). Healthy lifestyle through young adult-hood and the presence of low cardiovas-cular disease risk profile in middle age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) study. Circulation, 125: 996-1004. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.060681
12. Ludt S, Wensing M, Szecsenyi J et al (2011). Predictors of health-related quality of life in patients at risk for cardiovascular dis-ease in European primary care. PloS One, 6: e29334. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029334
13. Ford ES, Li C (2008). Metabolic syndrome and health-related quality of life among US adults. Ann Epidemiol, 18: 165-71. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2007.10.009
14. Mansikkamäki K, Raitanen J, Malila N et al (2015). Physical activity and menopause-related quality of life–A population-based cross-sectional study. Maturitas, 80 (1): 69-74. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.09.009
15. Kim YJ, Kwak C (2011). Prevalence and as-sociated risk factors for cardiovascular disease: findings from the 2005, 2007 Korea National Health and Nutrition Ex-amination Survey. Korean Journal of Health Promotion, 11 (3): 169-76.
16. Van Dijk GM, Kavousi M, Troup J et al (2015). Health issues for menopausal women: The top 11 conditions have common solutions. Maturitas, 80 (1): 24-30. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.09.013
17. Bang SY (2015). The effects of metabolic syndrome on quality of life. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Socie-ty, 16: 7034-42. doi: 10.5762/KAIS.2015.16.10.7034
18. Park HS, Park J (2013). The relationship be-tween metabolic syndrome and quality of life in Korean adult women. The Journal of the Korea Institute of Electronic Communication Sciences, 8: 639-48. doi: 10.13067/JKIECS.2013.8.4.639
19. Roohafza H, Sadeghi M, Talaei M et al (2012). Psychological status and quality of life in relation to the metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Cohort Study. Int J Endo-crinol, 2014: Article ID 203463. doi: 10.1155/2014/203463
20. Tziallas D, Kastanioti C, Kostapanos MS et al (2012). The impact of the metabolic syndrome on health-related quality of life: A cross-sectional study in Greece. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs, 11: 297-303. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcnurse.2011.02.004
21. Gutteling JJ, De Man RA, Buschbach JJ et al (2007). Overview of research on health-related quality of life in patients with chronic liver disease. The Netherlands J Med, 65, 227-34.
22. Ock M, Jo MW, Lee SI (2013). Measuring health related quality of life using EQ-5D in South Korea. Int J Technol Assess Health Care, 1 (1): 103-11.
23. Cepeda-Valery B, Cheong AP, Lee A, Yan BP (2011). Measuring health related quali-ty of life in coronary heart disease: the importance of feeling well. Int J Cardiol, 149, 4-9.
24. The EuroQol Group (1990). EuroQol – A new facility for the measurement of health-related quality of life. Health Policy, 16: 199-208. doi: 10.1016/0168-8510(90)90421-9
25. Lee YK, Nam HS, Chung LH et al (2009). South Korean time trade-off values for EQ-5D health status: Modeling with ob-served values for 101 health states. Value in Health, 12: 1187-93. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-4733.2009.00579.x
26. Kang MJ, Yi JS, Park CS (2018). Factors re-lated to the Identification of middle-aged women who are disadvantaged by car-dio-cerebrovascular disease. Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing, 24 (2): 185-95.
27. Oh JY, Yang YJ, Kim BS et al (2007). Validi-ty and reliability of Korean version of In-ternational Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form. Korean J Fam Med, 28: 532-41.
28. Sim JM, Jeon HG, Lee KG (2015). Com-parative analysis of the effect of physical activity and stress experience on the vit-amin D deficiency according to occupa-tions: Results from KNHANES dataset for 2008-2013. The Journal of the Korea Con-tents Association, 15: 505-18.
29. Amiri P, Hosseinpanah F, Jalali‐Farahani S et al (2014). Is persistence of metabolic syn-drome associated with poor health‐related quality of life in non‐diabetic Ira-nian adults? Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. J Diabetes Investig, 5: 687-93. doi: 10.1111/jdi.12222
30. Deedwania PC, Gupta R, Sharma KK et al (2014). High prevalence of metabolic syndrome among urban subjects in India: A multisite study. Diabetes Metab Syndr: Clin Res Rev, 8: 156-61. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2014.04.033
31. Dankel SJ, Loenneke JP, Loprinzi PD (2016). Determining the importance of meeting muscle-strengthening activity guidelines: Is the behavior or the out-come of the behavior (strength) a more important determinant of all-cause mor-tality? Mayo Clin Proc, 91: 166-74. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.10.017
32. Kwak Y, Kim Y (2019). Quality of life and subjective health status according to handgrip strength in the elderly: A cross-sectional study. Aging Ment Health, 23 (1): 107-12. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2017.1387766
33. Landi F, Liperoti R, Fusco D et al (2011). Prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia among nursing home older residents. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 67 (1): 48-55. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glr035
34. Cohen BE, Panguluri P, Na B et al (2010). Psychological risk factors and the meta-bolic syndrome in patients with coronary heart disease: Findings from the Heart and Soul Study. Psychiatry Res, 175 (1-2): 133-37. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2009.02.004
35. Jeon JH, Kim SH (2012). Depression, stress and how they are related with health be-haviors and metabolic syndrome among women over 40 years. Journal of the Korean Society of Maternal and Child Health, 16 (2): 263-73.
IssueVol 50 No 7 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v50i7.6624
Adult Cardiovascular disease; Metabolic diseases Nursing Quality of life

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Kwak Y, kim Y. Differences in Health-Related Quality of Life of Adults with Cardiovascular or Metabolic Diseases Compared to the General Population. Iran J Public Health. 50(7):1352-1360.