Original Article

Human Risk Due to Radon and Heavy Metals in Soil

Abstract

Background: We investigated the human risk due to radon and heavy metals (HM) in soil.

Methods: Samples were collected in 2017 from 10 representative geographical locations at Jazan region of southwestern Saudi Arabia and analyzed for elements (Al, Ca, Cu, Ni, Sr Fe, Mg, B, Co, Cr, V, Zn, Mn, Ba, Cd, and Pb). Elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Radon (Rn) was measured using solid-state nuclear detector (SSNTDs).

Results: The maximum human risk was due to Al, which had the highest concentration, where the lowest human risk was due to Cd. The maximum radon concentration was obtained at El-Mazab area with value of 381.05 Bq/m3which leads to 6.55 mSv/y and 78.94 Bq/m2d annual effective doses and radon exhalant rate respectively. Average equivalent and effective dose to different organs due to radon concentration was estimated. Hazard Index due to both carcinogenic and non-cancer hazards were calculated it exceeds permissible level for child due to Nickel and Chromium hence there is a significant risk on children in the study area.

Conclusion: HM concentrations were over limits in some places according to the human activities, municipal waste disposal, fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture. In addition, soil is porous permit dispersion of radon to the atmosphere.

1. Ahmed Youssef M, Norbert Maerz H (2013). Overview of Some Geological Hazards in the Saudi Arabia. Environmental Earth Sciences, 70(3): 3115–3130.
2. Al-Hamed S A, Wahby M F, .Aboukarima A M (2017).Evaluation of Natural Radionu-clides, Cesium-137 and Radiological Haz-ard Indices of Agricultural Soils in Saudi Arabia. J Nucl Tech Appl Sci, 5(1):27- 42.
3. Mahmood.Karim S, Hasan.Daroysh.H, Taghreed Hameed K (2016). Measure-ment of Natural Radioactivity in Selected Soil Samples from the Archaeological of Babylon City, Iraq. J Rad Nucl Appl, 1(1): 31-35.
4. UNSCEAR (2008). Sources and Effects of Ioniz-ing Radiation. Volume (1), New York. An-nex B: Exposures from Natural Radiation Sources and Annex D: Medical Radiation Exposures.
5. Shams A M Issa and S M Alaseri (2015). Determination of Natural Radioactivity and Associated Radiological Risk in Building Materials Used in Tabuk Area, Saudi Arabia. IJEAT, 82 (5):45-62.
6. Neetika Chauhan, Chauhan RP, Joshi M, et al (2014). Study of Indoor Radon Distri-bution using Measurements and CFD Modeling. Journal of Environmental Radioac-tivity, 136:105-111.
7. Hassan N M, Masahiro Hosoda, KazukiI-waoka, et al (2011). Simultaneous Meas-urement of Radon and Thoron Released from Building Materials used in Japan. J NuclSci Tech, 1:404-407.
8. WHO, World Health Organization (2009). Handbook on Indoor Radon. A Public Health Perspective, WHO Press, Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream /10665/44149/1/9789241547673_eng.pdf
9. Schubert M, Svhmidt A, Muller K, et al (2011). Using Radon-222 as Indicator for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of Groundwater Remediation by in Situ Air Sparking. J Environ Radioact 102(2): 193- 9.
10. Oves M, Khan MS, Zaidi A, Ahmad E (2012). Soil Contamination, Nutritive Val-ue, and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals: An Overview. Toxicity of Heavy Metals to Legumes and Bioremediation, 1-27.
11. Algreen M, Rein A, Legind CN, et al (2012). Test of Tree Core Sampling for Screen-ing of Toxic Elements in Soils from a Norwegian site. Int J Phytoremediation, 14: 305-19.
12. Smith SR. (2009). A Critical Review of the Bioavailability and Impacts of Heavy Metals in Municipal Solid Waste Com-posts Compared to Sewage Sludge. Envi-ron Int, 35(1):142-56.
13. Khan MS, Zaidi A, Ahmad M, et al (2010). Plant Growth Promotion by Phosphate Solubilizing Fungi-Current Perspective. Arch Agro and Soil Sci, 56: 73-98.
14. Jadia C D, Fulekar M H (2009). Phytoreme-diation of Heavy Metals: Recent Tech-niques. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(6): 921–928.
15. Oves Saghir M, Khan M, Huda Qari A, et al (2016). Heavy Metals: Biological Im-portance and Detoxification Strategies. Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegrada-tion, 7:2.
16. QuSheng L, ShaSha C, CeHui M, et al (2010). Toxic Effects of Heavy Metals and Their Accumulation in Vegetables Grown in A Saline Soil. Ecotox Environ Safe, 73(1):84-8.
17. ChenJ, Rahman N M, Atiya I A (2010). Ra-don Exhalation from Building Materials for Decorative Use. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 101: 317-322.
18. Keller G, Hoffmann B, Feigenspan T (2001). Radon Permeability and Radon Exhalation of Building Materials. Sci To Environ, 272(1-3):85-9.
19. Eckerman K F, and Ryman JC (1993). Ex-ternal Exposure to Radionuclides in Air, Water, and Soil. Federal Guidance Report No. 12, EPA Report 402-R-93-081 (Washington, DC).
20. ICRP, International Commission on Radio-logical Protection (1991). The 1990 Recom-mendations of the Commission. ICRP Publica-tion 60, Annals of the ICRP, 21(3):295-302, (Pergamon Press, New York).
21. ICRP publication 103(2007).The Recommenda-tions of International Commission on Radiological Protection. Annals of the ICRP 37(2-4).
22. Ferreira- BaptistaL, De Miguel E (2005). Geochemistry and Risk Assessment of Street Dust in Luanda, Angola: A Tropi-cal Urban Environment. Atmospheric Envi-ronment, 39:4501–4512.
23. Haribala Bai, Bitao Hu, Chengguo Wang, et al (2017). Assessment of Radioactive Ma-terials and Heavy Metals in the Surface Soil around the Bayanwula Prospective Uranium Mining Area in China. Int J En-viron Res Public Health, 14(3):300.
24. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2002). Supplemental Guidance for Developing Soil Screening Levels for Superfund Sites: https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=91003IJK.TXT
25. XuS, Zheng N, Liu J, et al (2013). Health Risk Assessment of Arsenic Exposure to Street Dust in the Zinc Smelting District, Northeast China. Environ Geochem Health, 35(1): 89–99.
26. Cheng H, Teng Y, Lu S, et al (2015). Con-tamination Features and Health Risk of Soil Heavy Metals in China. Science of the Total Environment, 1:143–153.
27. Carmen Gutiérrez, Carlos Fernández, Miguel Escuer, et al (2016). Effect of Soil Proper-ties, Heavy Metals and Emerging Con-taminants in the Soil Nematodes Diversi-ty. Environmental Pollution, 213: 184-194.
28. Otvo E, Pazmandi T, Tuba Z (2003). First National Survey of Atmospheric Heavy Metal Deposition in Hungary by the Analysis of Mosses. Sci Total Environ, 309(1-3):151-60.
29. Xiao-Liang Wang, Ming-Hui Wang, Sheng-Xiang Quan, et al (2016). Influence of Thermal Treatment on Fixation Rate and Leaching Behavior of Heavy Metals in Soils from A Typical E-Waste Processing Site. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engi-neering, 4:82–88.
30. Liu Dexin, Jianhua Ma, Yanli Sun, et al (2016). Spatial Distribution of Soil Mag-netic Susceptibility and Correlation with Heavy Metal Pollution in Kaifeng City, China. Catena, 139:53–60.
31. Amini M, Afyuni M, Fathianpour N, et al (2005). Continuous Soil Pollution using Fuzzy Logic and Spatial Interpolations. Geoderma, 124:223–233.
32. EL-Araby E H, Abd El-wahab M M, EL-Desouky T M, et al (2011). Assessment of Atmospheric Heavy Metal Deposition in Egypt by Using Neutron Activation Analysis. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 69: 1506–1511.
33. World Health Organization (1998). Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants Materials, Geneva 19, Switzerland.
Files
IssueVol 50 No 8 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
Published2021-07-22
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v50i8.6808
Keywords
Radon Heavy metal Risk Inductively coupled plasma

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
El-Araby E, Salman K, Mubarak F. Human Risk Due to Radon and Heavy Metals in Soil. Iran J Public Health. 2021;50(8):1624-1634.