The Effect of Mother-Infant Skin to Skin Contact after Birth on Third Stage of Labor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background: One of the causes of postpartum hemorrhage is prolongation of third stage of labor. Mother-infant skin to skin contact (SSC) immediately after delivery is one of the non-pharmacological interventions to reduce this stage. Studies which assessed the effect of mother-infant SSC after delivery on duration of the third stage of labor reported controversial results on this issue. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of mother-infant SSC immediately after birth on the duration of third stage of labor
Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the databases of PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, SID, Magiran IranDoc and Google Scholar were searched from 2000 to 2018, using the keywords related to the objectives of this review to access randomized control trials published in Persian or English. The quality of papers was examined using Cochran's Risk of bias tool. Data was analyzed using Stata software. We used I2 index and Chi-square test to investigate heterogeneity and Egger’s and Begg’s tests to assess publications bias. Random effects model was used to combine the data.
Results: Six studies were entered into the meta-analysis. The third stage of labor in SSC group was shorter than that of control group with a mean difference of -1.33 and 95% CI (-2.31 to -0.36) and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.007).
Conclusion: Mother-infant SSC decreases the duration of third stage of labor. Therefore, the current study provides some evidences to use this non-pharmacological method in order to accelerate the third stage of labor and ultimately prevent postpartum hemorrhage.
2. Tara F, Davoodi R, Saghafi N, et al (2013). Manage ment of Post Partum Hemor-rhage (Clinical Guideline). Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil, 16(62):1117.
3. Edwards HM (2018). Aetiology and treat-ment of severe postpartum haemorrhage. Dan Med J, 65(3). pii: B5444.
4. Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, et al (2014). Williams Obstetrics. 24th ed. McGraw-Hill, United States, pp: 546-548,780-785.
5. Karimi A, Majlesi M, Rafieian-Kopaei M (2015). Herbal versus synthetic drugs; be-liefs and facts. J Nephropharmacol, 4(1): 27-30.
6. Essa RM, Ismail NI (2015). Effect of early maternal/newborn skin-to-skin contact after birth on the duration of third stage of labor and initiation of breastfeeding. J Nurs Educ Pract, 5(4):98.
7. Dahlø RHT, Gulla K, Saga S, Kristoffersen L, Eilertsen MEB (2018). Sacred hours: mothers' experiences of skin-to-skin contact with their infants immediately af-ter preterm birth. Int J Pediatr Neonat Care, 4: 139.
8. Karimi FZ, Khadivzadeh T, Saeidi M, Bagheri S (2016). The Effect of Kanga-roo Mother Care Immediately after De-livery on Mother infant Attachment and on Maternal Anxiety about the Baby 3- Months after Delivery: a Randomized Controlled Trial. Int J Pediatr, 4(9): 3561-70.
9. Karimi A, Tara F, Khadivzadeh T, Aghamohammadian Sharbaf HR (2013). The Effect of Skin to Skin Contact Im-mediately after Delivery on the Maternal Attachment and Anxiety Regarding In-fant. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil, 16(67): 7-15
10. Cooijmans KHM, Beijers R, Rovers AC, de Weerth C (2017). Effectiveness of skin-to-skin contact versus care-as-usual in mothers and their full-term infants: study protocol for a parallel-group randomized controlled trial. BMC Pediatr, 17(1):154.
11. Karimi FZ, Bagheri S, Tara F, Khadivzadeh T, Mousavi Bazaz SM (2014). Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on breastfeeding self efficacy in primiparous women, 3 month after child birth. Iran J Obstet Gyne-col Infertil, 17(120): 1-8.
12. Vesel L, Bergh AM, Kerber KJ, et al (2015). Kangaroo mother care: a multi-country analysis of health system bottlenecks and potential solutions. BMC Pregnancy Child-birth, 15 Suppl 2:S5.
13. Mejbel MK, Ali RM (2012). Effectiveness of Skin-to Skin Contact on duration of third stage of labor in Baghdad Teaching Hospital: Comparative Study. Kufa J Nurs Sci, 2(3): 1-13.
14. Al-Morbaty HY, Ashmauey AA, Al-Ghamdi AA (2017). The Effect of Mother and Newborn Early Skin-To-Skin Contact on the Duration of Separation and Expul-sion of the Placenta. J Nurs Health Stud, 2:2.
15. Marín Gabriel MA, Llana Martín I, López Escobar A, Fernández Villalba E, Romero Blanco I, Touza Pol P (2010). Randomized controlled trial of early skin-to-skin contact: effects on the mother and the newborn. Acta Paediatr, 99: 1630-4.
16. Gopalakrishnan S, Ganeshkumar P (2013). Systematic reviews and meta-analysis: un-derstanding the best evidence in primary healthcare. J Family Med Prim Care, 2(1):9-14.
17. Higgins JP, Green S (2008). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, England, pp: 202-204.
18. Safari K, Saeed AA, Hasan SS, Moghaddam-Banaem L (2018). The effect of mother and newborn early skin-to-skin contact on initiation of breastfeeding, newborn temperature and duration of third stage of labor. Int Breastfeed J, 13:32.
19. Khadivzadeh T, Karimi FZ, Tara F (2018). Effects of early mother-neonate skin-to-skin contact on the duration of the third stage of labor: A randomized clinical trial. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil, 21(2): 23-29.
20. Heydari, L, Suhrabi Z, Sayehmiri F, Sayehm-iri, K (2014). Effect of Herbaceous Medi-cines effective in hot flashes of Meno-pause women: a systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Iran. Iran J Obstet Gyne-col Infertil, 17(109): 16-25.
21. Matthiesen AS, Ransjö-Arvidson AB, Nis-sen E, Uvnäs-Moberg K. (2001). Post-partum maternal release by newborns: ef-fects of infant hand massage and suck-ing. Birth, 28(1):13-9.
22. Khadivzadeh T, Karimi FZ, Tara F, Bagheri S (2016). The Effect of Postpartum Mother– Infant Skin-to-Skin Contact on Exclusive Breastfeeding In neonatal peri-od: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Int J Pediatr, 4(5): 5409-17.
23. Lothian JA (2005). The Birth of a Breast-feeding Baby and Mother. J Perinat Educ, 14(1): 42–45.
24. Karimi A, Bagheri S, Khadivzadeh T, Mirzaii Najmabadi KH (2014). The Effect of an Interventional Program, Based on the Theory of Ethology, on Breastfeeding Competence of Infants. Iran J Neonatol, 5(3): 10-12.
25. Cadwell K, Brimdyr K (2017). Intrapartum Administration of Synthetic Oxytocin and Downstream Effects on Breastfeed-ing: Elucidating Physiologic Pathways. Ann Nurs Res Pract, 2(3): 1024.
26. Saxton A, Fahy K, Rolfe M, Skinner V, Has-tie C (2015). Does skin-to-skin contact and breast feeding at birth affect the rate of primary postpartum haemorrhage: Re-sults of a cohort study. Midwifery, 31(11):1110-7.