Self-care Ability of Older People Living in Urban Areas of Northwestern Iran

  • Jafar Sadegh TABRIZI Tabriz Health Service Management Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran and Dept. of Health Services Management, School of Health Service Management and Medical Informatics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran and Iranian Center of Excellence in Health Management, School of Management and Medical Informatics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  • Mehrdad Amir BEHGHADAMI Mail Dept. of Health Services Management, School of Health Service Management and Medical Informatics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran and Iranian Center of Excellence in Health Management, School of Management and Medical Informatics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran and Student Research Committee (SRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  • Mohammad SAADATI Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
Self-care ability, Elderly, Health complexes, Iran


Background: Self-care ability was considered as a mechanism to improve the quality of life and reducing the high costs of medical services for elder people. Iran is experiencing increased elder people and healthy aging is one of the challenges. This study aimed to investigate self-care ability of elder people in Shahid Chamran and Dr. Shadpour health complexes, Tabriz- Iran.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done in 2015."The Self-care Ability Scale for the Elderly (SASE)" valid and reliable questionnaire (Persian version) was used for data collection. Totally, 220 samples were selected using G-Power 3.1.5 software. Sampling was conducted through systematic random method. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software. Descriptive statistics and independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used.

Results: The mean of self-care ability in elder people was calculated as 56.69± 15.07 (out of 100). 96.8% of participating elderlies, had poor self-care ability. Significant relations were found between elder people self-care ability and their educational level, life status, employment status, and marital status (P<0.05). However, gender, income source, and insurance status had no relations with self-care ability of the elder people (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Self-care ability of elder people in Tabriz was at weak level. Regarding, health providers must employ the programs to promote older people self-care ability including improving self-esteem, receiving family help, improved nutrition and mental health improving elderly's quality of life.



1. Farahnaz Mohammadi , Fateme Dabbaghi, Mansure Nikravesh (2008). Facilitator and barriers factors in family caregiving process of Iranian frail elderly: qualitative study. Iran J Nurs, 21:55-65.
2. Sahebzamani M, Mehrabiyan F, Asgharzadeh A (2009). Determine the Satisfaction Level of Services which are given to Elderly in Rasht Disabled and Elderly Residential. J Guilan Uni Med Sci, 17:34-41.
3. Esmaili Shirazi M (2000). Social Psychology for Elderly. 1st ed. Shiraz: Shiraz University Publisher:21-32.
4. Shahbazzadegan B, Farmanbar R, Ghanbari A et al (2008). The effect of regular exercise on self-esteem in elderly residents in nursing homes. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci, 8:387-393.
5. Schofield I, Heath H (1999). Healthy Ageing: Nursing Older People. Amsterdam: Elsevier Health Sciences. Accessed November, 10:2010.
6. Gavrilov L, Heuveline P (2003). Aging of Population. The Encyclopedia of Population. Edited by: Demeny P, McNicoll G. New York, Macmillan Reference USA, 32-37 .
7. Spirduso WW, Cronin DL (2001). Exercise dose–response effects on quality of life and independent living in older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 33:S598-608.
8. Bassey EJ, Fiatarone MA, O'neill EF et al (1992). Leg extensor power and functional performance in very old men and women. Clin Sci (Lond), 82:321-327.
9. Baraz S, Rostami M, Farzianpor F, Rasekh A (2009). Effect of Orem Self Care Model on ederies' quality of life in health care centers of Masjed Solaiman in 2007-2008. Arak Medical University Journal, 12:51-59.
10. Rashedi V, Gharib M, Yazdani AA (2014). Social participation and mental health among older adults in Iran. IRJ, 12:9-13.
11. Burghardt M (1999). Exercise at menopause: a critical difference. Medscape Womens Health, 4:1-1.
12. Sundsli K, Söderhamn U, Espnes GA, Söderhamn O (2012). Ability for self-care in urban living older people in southern Norway. J Multidiscip Healthc, 5: 85-95.
13. Høy B, Wagner L, Hall EO (2007). Self‐care as a health resource of elders: an integrative review of the concept. Scand J Caring Sci, 21:456-466.
14. Dale B, Söderhamn U, Söderhamn O (2012). Self‐care ability among home‐dwelling older people in rural areas in southern Norway. Scand J Caring Sci, 26:113-122.
15. Süderhamn O, Ek A-C, Pürn I (1996). The self-care ability scale for the elderly. Scand J Occup Ther, 3:69-78.
16. Alligood MR (2014). Nursing theorists and their work. ed. Elsevier Health Sciences.
17. Julia GB (1995) Nursing Theories-The base for professional Nursing Practice. Norwalk, Appleton & Lange,
18. Baraz Sh, Mohammadi E, Broumand B (2005). The effect of self-care educational program on decreasing the problems and improving the quality of life of dialysis patients. Hayat, 11:51-62.
19. McLaughlin J, Zeeberg I (1993). Self-care and multiple sclerosis: a view from two cultures. Soc Sci Med, 37:315-329.
20. Söderhamn O, Lindencrona C, Anna-Christina Ek (1996). Validity of two self-care instruments for the Elderly. Scand J Occup Ther, 3:172-179.
21. Haveman-Nies A, De Groot LC, Van Staveren WA (2003). Relation of dietary quality, physical activity, and smoking habits to 10-year changes in health status in older Europeans in the SENECA study. Am J Public Health, 93:318-323.
22. Söderhamn O (2000). Self-care activity as a structure: a phenomenological approach. Scand J Occup Ther, 7:183-189.
23. Klainin P, Ounnapiruk L (2010). A Meta-Analysis of Self-Care Behavior Research on Elders in Thailand An Update. Nurs Sci Q, 23:156-163.
24. Söderhamn U, Söderhamn O (2001). Developing and testing the nutritional form for the elderly. Int J Nurs Pract, 7:336-341.
25. Strauser DR, Ketz K, Keim J (2002). The relationship between self-efficacy, locus of control and work personality. J Rehabil, 68:20-26.
26. Söderhamn O, Cliffordson C (2001). The structure of self-care in a group of elderly people. Nurs Sci Q, 14:55-58.
27. Masoodi R, Khayeri F, Safdari A (2010). Effect of self-care program based on the Orem frame work on self concept in multiple sclerosis patients. J Gorgan Univ Med Sci, 12:37-44.
28. Walker RJ, Gebregziabher M, Martin-Harris B, Egede LE (2015). Understanding the influence of psychological and socioeconomic factors on diabetes self-care using structured equation modeling. Patient Educ Couns, 98:34-40.
29. Akyol AD, Cetinkaya Y, Bakan G, Yaralı S, Akkuş S (2007). Self‐care agency and factors related to this agency among patients with hypertension. J Clin Nurs, 16:679-687.
30. Söderhamn U, Bachrach-Lindström M, Ek A-C (2008). Self-care ability and sense of coherence in older nutritional at-risk patients. Eur J Clin Nutr, 62:96-103.
31. Abotalebi G. The study of self-care agency based on orems theory in individuals with hypertension admitted to the selected hospitals of Ardebil [MSC thesis]. Tehran Islamic Azad University Medical Sciences Branch, Iran; 2009.
32. Hasani M, Farahani B, Zohour A, Panahi A (2010). Self-care ability based on Orem’s theory in individuals with coronary artery disease. Iran J Crit Care Nurs, 3:87-91.
33. Rockwell JM, Riegel B (2001). Predictors of self-care in persons with heart failure. Heart Lung, 30:18-25.
How to Cite
TABRIZI JS, BEHGHADAMI MA, SAADATI M. Self-care Ability of Older People Living in Urban Areas of Northwestern Iran. Iran J Public Health. 47(12):1899-1905.
Original Article(s)