A Multicenter Cross-sectional Study on the Prevalence and Impact Factors of Hysteria Tendency in the Eastern Chinese Adolescents
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the environmental impact-factors differences between female and male HT in the eastern Chinese adolescents.
Methods: We used a multicenter, cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence rates and the associated impact-factors of hysteria tendency (HT) in 2014. Totally, 10131 adolescents took part in the study from three School Health Surveillance System centers in three provinces of east China. The data were collected using a common protocol and questionnaire in order to identify common environment affecting in this population.
Results: An overall positive rate of HT among the eastern Chinese adolescents was 13.13% (95% CI: 12.48%-13.80%) with 14.01% (95% CI: 13.05%-15.02%) for females and 12.30% (95% CI: 11.43%-13.22%) for males. Gender-stratified regression analyses revealed that 7 out of the 21 tested covariates were linked to HT only in males, while 9 out of the 21 tested covariates were associated with female HT only. Although, the models pointed out that of all independent variables, the variable –family medical history was the strongest environment impact to both the male HT (amOR=2.49, 95% CI=1.77-3.25) and female HT (amOR=2.83, 95% CI=2.19-3.68).
Conclusion: HT is prevalent among adolescents in the eastern Chinese adolescents. Environmental factors differences between female and male HT are significant in adolescents, and HT affects more female than male. First, prevention and therapy of HT in adolescents should focus on various social, school and family environment settings, and individual characteristics. Second, gender -respective intervention programs against HT in adolescents should be implemented.
2. Feinstein A (2011). Conversion disorder: advances in our understanding. CMAJ, 183 (8):915-920.
3. Black DW, Grant JE (2014). DSM-5® guide-book: the essential companion to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washing-ton: American Psychiatric Publishing.
4. Cavanna AE (2015). The past, present and future of hysteria. Cogn Neuropsychiatry, 20(4): 372-376.
5. Creed FH, Davies I, Jackson J, et al. (2012). The epidemiology of multiple somatic symptoms. J Psychosom Res, 72(4): 311-317.
6. Fink P, Schröder A (2010). One single diag-nosis, bodily distress syndrome, succeed-ed to capture 10 diagnostic categories of functional somatic syndromes and soma-toform disorders. J Psychosom Res, 68(5): 415-426.
7. Escobar JI, Cook B, Chen CN, et al. (2010).Whether medically unexplained or not, three or more concurrent somatic symptoms predict psychopathology and service use in community populations. J Psychosom Res, 69(1): 1-8.
8. Kozlowska K, Palmer DM, Brown KJ, et al. (2015).Conversion disorder in children and adolescents: a disorder of cognitive control. J Neuropsychol, 9(1): 87-108.
9. Fritz GK, Fritsch S, Hagino O (1997). So-matoform disorders in children and ado-lescents: a review of the past 10 years. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 36(10): 1329-1338.
10. Hofstra MB, Van Der Ende J, Verhulst FC (2002). Child and adolescent problems predict DSM-IV disorders in adulthood: A 14-year follow-up of a Dutch epidemi-ological sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 41(2): 182-189.
11. Chodoff P, Lyons H (1958). Hysteria, the hysterical personality and "hysterical" conversion. Am J Psychiatry, 114(8): 734-740.
12. Halleck SL (1967). Hysterical personality traits: Psychological, social, and iatrogenic determinants. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 16(6): 750-757.
13. Hansen TB, Steenberg LM, Palic S, Elklit A (2012). A review of psychological factors related to bullying victimization in schools. Aggress Violent Behav, 17(4): 383-387.
14. Obimakinde AM, Ladipo MM, Irabor AE (2015). Familial and socio-economic cor-relates of somatisation disorder. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med, 7(1): 746.
15. Solidaki E, Chatzi L, Bitsios P, et al (2010). Work related and psychological determi-nants of multi-site musculoskeletal pain. Scand J Work Environ Health, 36(1): 54-61.
16. Neeleman J, Ormel J, Bijl RV (2001). The distribution of psychiatric and somatic ill health: Associations with personality and socioeconomic status. Psychosom Med, 63(2):239–247.
17. Zhang J, Song W, Cheung FM (2004). The Chinese Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inven-tory-2 (MMPI-2) (Chinese language edition). Beijing: Geological Press. (In Chinese).
18. Tellegen A, Ben-Porath Y (1992). The new uniform t-scores for the MMPI-2: Ra-tionale, derivation, and appraisal. Psychol Assess, 4(2): 145-155.
19. Yung YF, Chan W, Cheung FM et al (2000). Standardization of the Chinese Personali-ty Assessment Inventory: The prototype standardization method and its rationale. Asian J Soc Psychol, 3(2): 133-152.
20. Bjelland I, Dahl AA, Haug TT, Neckelmann D (2002). The validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: an updat-ed literature review. J Psychosom Res, 52(2):69-77.
21. Leung CM, Wing YK, Kwong PK et al (1999). Validation of the Chinese-Cantonese version of the Hospital Anxie-ty and Depression Scale and comparison with the Hamilton Rating Scale of De-pression. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 100(6):456-461.
22. Hong JS, Tian J (2014). Prevalence of anxiety and depression and their risk factors in Chinese cancer patients. Support Care Can-cer, 22(2): 453-459.
23. Zhang AY, Snowden LR, Sue S (1998). Dif-ferences between Asian and White Amer-icans' help seeking and utilization patterns in the Los Angeles area. J Community Psy-chol, 26(4): 317-326.
24. Kawanishi Y (1992). Somatization of Asians: An artifact of Western medicalization? Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 29(1): 5-36.
25. Alqahtani MM, Salmon P (2008). Prevalence of somatization and minor psychiatric morbidity in primary healthcare in Saudi Arabia: a preliminary study in Asir region. J Family Community Med, 15(1): 27-33.
26. Rief W, Hessel A, Braehler E (2001). Somati-zation symptoms and hypochondriacal features in the general population. Psycho-som Med, 63(4):595–602.
27. Swartz M, Blazer D, Woodbury M et al (1986). Somatization disorder in a US southern community: use of a new pro-cedure for analysis of medical classifica-tion. Psychol Med, 16 (3): 595-609.
28. Colligan MJ, Pennebaker JW, Murphy LR (2013). Mass psychogenic illness: A social psycho-logical analysis. London: Routledge.
29. World Health Organization (WHO). (2016). Risks to mental health: an overview of vulnerabilities and risk factors.
30. Lewis AJ, Kremer P, Douglas K, et al. (2015). Gender differences in adolescent depression: Differential female suscepti-bility to stressors affecting family func-tioning. Aust J Psychol, 67(3): 131-139.
31. Brock RL, Kochanska G (2015). Decline in the quality of family relationships predicts escalation in children’s internalizing symptoms from middle to late child-hood. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 43(7): 1295-1308.
32. Bolghan-Abadi M, Kimiaee SA, Amir F (2011). The relationship between parents’ child rearing styles and their children’s quality of life and mental health. Psychology, 2(3): 230-234.
33. Coles ME, Ravid A, Gibb B, George-Denn D et al (2016). Adolescent mental health literacy: young people's knowledge of de-pression and social anxiety disorder. J Adolesc Health, 58(1): 57-62.
34. Fattore L, Melis M, Fadda P, Fratta W (2014). Sex differences in addictive disor-ders. Front Neuroendocrinol, 35(3): 272-284.
35. Piccinelli M, Wilkinson G (2000). Gender differences in depression. Br J Psychiatry, 177: 486-492.
36. Patock-Peckham JA, Cheong JW, Balhorn ME, Nagoshi CT (2001). A social learn-ing perspective: a model of parenting styles, self-regulation, perceived drinking control, and alcohol Use and problems. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 25(9): 1284-1292.
37. Mantarkov M, Ahmed-Popova F, Akabaliev V, Sivkov S (2016). Somatotype in Bipolar Disorder Revisited: Gender Differences, Neurodevelopment and Clinical Implica-tions. Imp J Interdiscip Res, 2(9):1028-1037.
38. Fazel M, Hoagwood K, Stephan S, Ford T (2014). Mental health interventions in schools in high-income countries. Lancet Psychiatry, 1(5): 377-387.
39. Green JG, McLaughlin KA, Alegría M, et al (2013). School mental health resources and adolescent mental health service use. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 52(5): 501-510.
40. Huang Y, Zhong XN, Li QY, et al. (2015). Health-related quality of life of the rural-China left-behind children or adolescents and influential factors: a cross-sectional study. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 13: 29.
41. Campo JV (2012). Annual Research Review: Functional somatic symptoms and asso-ciated anxiety and depression–developmental psychopathology in pedi-atric practice. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 53(5): 575-592.
42. Nugent NR, Tyrka AR, Carpenter LL, Price LH (2011). Gene–environment interac-tions: early life stress and risk for depres-sive and anxiety disorders. Psychopharma-cology (Berl), 214(1): 175-196.
43. Sullivan PF, Magnusson C, Reichenberg A, et al. (2012). Family history of schizo-phrenia and bipolar disorder as risk fac-tors for autism. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 69(11): 1099-1103.
44. Repetti RL, Taylor SE, Seeman TE (2002). Risky families: family social environments and the mental and physical health of offspring. Psychol Bull, 128(2): 330-366.
45. Rasic D, Hajek T, Alda M, Uher R (2014). Risk of mental illness in offspring of par-ents with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of family high-risk studies. Schiz-ophr Bull, 40 (1): 28-38.
Copyright (c) 2018 Iranian Journal of Public Health
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.