Hair Metal Levels and Childhood Weight Gain
Background: Exposure to toxic metals remains a public health problem with lifelong impacts on childhood growth and development. We aimed to investigate metals effects on preschool children’s anthropometric variables.
Methods: The study was conducted in Tehran, Iran, from Jul 2013 to Mar 2016. We measured scalp hair metal concentrations (lead, cadmium, arsenic, zinc, manganese, and cobalt), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, in 207 preschool children’s (36 to 72 months old).
Results: A significant negative correlation between children's hair lead levels and children's weight was found (r= −0.178, P<0.05). Linear regression analysis confirmed the relationship when adjusted for the confounders, including children's age, sex, height, family income, and maternal education (β= −0.191; t= −3.426, P< 0.01). The ANOVA analysis showed a significant (P<0.01) difference between hair lead level and children's weight-for-age percentiles. Totally and separately, in almost all weight percentiles, hair lead levels were higher in girls than boys.
Conclusion: The present study on Iranian children showed the current levels of lead exposure might negatively influence on children growth, with higher risk for girls than boys.
2. Islam MN, Chowdhury AK, Siddika M, et al (2009).Effect of zinc on growth of preterm babies. Mymensingh Med J, 18(1):125-30.
3. Eum JH, Cheong HK, Ha EH, et al (2014) . Maternal blood manganese level and birth weight: a MOCEH birth cohort study. Environ Health, 13: 31.
4. Zota AR, Ettinger AS, Bouchard M, et al (2009). Maternal blood manganese levels and infant birth weight. Epidemiology, 20(3):367-373.
5. Nishioka E, Yokoyama K, Matsukawa T, et al (2014). Evidence that birth weight is decreased by maternal lead levels below 5mug/dl in male newborns. Reprod Toxicol,47:21-6.
6. Choi J, Chang JY, Hong J, et al (2017). Low-Level Toxic Metal Exposure in Healthy Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Dietary Intake, and Iron Deficiency. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 14(4):388.
7. Ettinger A, Wengrovitz A (2010). Guidelines for the Identification and Management of Lead Exposure in Pregnant and Lactating Women. In: Prevention CfDCa, editor: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
8. Vigeh M, Yokoyama K, Shinohara A, et al (2010). Early pregnancy blood lead levels and the risk of premature rupture of the membranes. Reprod Toxicol, 30(3):477-80.
9. Vigeh M, Yokoyama K, Seyedaghamiri Z, et al (2011). Blood lead at currently acceptable levels may cause preterm labour. Occupational and environmental medicine,68(3):231-4.
10. Kelishadi R, Amiri M, Motlagh ME, et al (2014). Growth disorders among 6-year-old Iranian children. Iran Red Crescent Med J,16(6):e6761.
11. Ahmadi A, Moazen M, Mosallaei Z, et al (2014). Nutrient intake and growth indices for children at kindergartens in Shiraz, Iran. J Pak Med Assoc,64(3):316-21.
12. Kelishadi R, Ardalan G, Qorbani M, et al (2013).Methodology and Early Findings of the Fourth Survey of Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-Communicable Disease in Iran: The CASPIAN-IV Study. Int J Prev Med,12:1451-1460.
13. Payandeh A, Saki A, Safarian M, et al (2013). Prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children in northeast of Iran, a result of a population based study. Glob J Health Sci,5(2):208-12.
14. Baghianimoghadam B, Karbasi SA, Golestan M, Kamran MH (2012).Determination of growth pattern of 7-12 years old children in YAZD city and comparison of it with WHO standards. J Pak Med Assoc 62(12):1289-93.
15. Sekhavatjou MS, Hosseini Alhashemi A, Rostami A ( 2011). Comparison of trace element concentrations in ambient air of industrial and residential areas in Tehran city. Biol Trace Elem Res,143(3):1413-23.
16. Saeedi M, Hosseinzadeh M, Jamshidi A, Pajooheshfar SP (2009). Assessment of heavy metals contamination and leaching characteristics in highway side soils, Iran. Environ Monit Assess,151(1-4):231-41.
17. Mehra R, Juneja M (2003). Adverse health effects in workers exposed to trace/toxic metals at workplace. Indian J Biochem Biophys,40(2):131-5.
18. Gil F, Hernandez AF, Marquez C, et al (2011).Biomonitorization of cadmium, chromium, manganese, nickel and lead in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva in an occupationally exposed population. Sci Total Environ,409(6):1172-80.
19. Shah F, Kazi TG, Ullah N, Afridi HI (2013 ). Determination of lead in biological samples of children with different physiological consequences using cloud point extraction method. Biol Trace Elem Res,153(1-3):134-40.
20. Sanna E, Vallascas E (2011).Hair lead levels to evaluate the subclinical impact of lead on growth in Sardinian children (Italy). Am J Hum Biol,23(6):740-6.
21. Wold Health Organization (2018). Child Growth Standards, World Health Organization. Geneva Available from: http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/weight_for_age/en/
22. Yang H, Huo X, Yekeen TA, et al (2013). Effects of lead and cadmium exposure from electronic waste on child physical growth. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int,20(7):4441-7.
23. Scinicariello F, Buser MC, Mevissen M, Portier CJ (2013). Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999-2006. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol,15;273(3):516-23.
24. Sanin LH, Gonzalez-Cossio T, Romieu I, et al (2001). Effect of maternal lead burden on infant weight and weight gain at one month of age among breastfed infants. Pediatrics, 107(5):1016-23.
25. Afeiche M, Peterson KE, Sanchez BN, et al (2011). Prenatal lead exposure and weight of 0- to 5-year-old children in Mexico city. Environ Health Perspect,119(10):1436-41.
26. Taylor CM, Golding J, Emond AM (2015).Adverse effects of maternal lead levels on birth outcomes in the ALSPAC study: a prospective birth cohort study. BJOG,122(3):322-8.
27. Zhu M, Fitzgerald EF, Gelberg KH, et al (2010). Maternal low-level lead exposure and fetal growth. Environ Health Perspect,118(10):1471-1475.
28. Renzetti S, Just AC, Burris HH, et al (2017). The association of lead exposure during pregnancy and childhood anthropometry in the Mexican PROGRESS cohort. Environ Res,152:226-232.
29. Schell LM, Denham M, Stark AD, et al (2009).Growth of infants' length, weight, head and arm circumferences in relation to low levels of blood lead measured serially. Am J Hum Biol,21(2):180-7.
30. Little BB, Spalding S, Walsh B, et al (2009).Blood lead levels and growth status among African-American and Hispanic children in Dallas, Texas--1980 and 2002: Dallas Lead Project II. Ann Hum Biol,36(3):331-41.
31. Vigeh M, Yokoyama K, Ramezanzadeh F, et al (2008). Blood manganese concentrations and intrauterine growth restriction. Reprod Toxicol,25(2):219-23.
32. Guan H, Wang M, Li X, et al (2014). Manganese concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood: related to birth size and environmental factors. Eur J Public Health,24(1):150-7.
33. Duc Phuc H, Kido T, Dung Manh H, et al (2016).A 28-year observational study of urinary cadmium and beta -microglobulin concentrations in inhabitants in cadmium-polluted areas in Japan. J Appl Toxicol, 36(12):1622-1628.
34. Chen J, Li M, Lv Q, et al (2015).Blood lead level and its relationship to essential elements in preschool children from Nanning, China. J Trace Elem Med Biol, 30:137-41.
35. Abdelouahab N, Mergler D, Takser L, et al (2008).Gender differences in the effects of organochlorines, mercury, and lead on thyroid hormone levels in lakeside communities of Quebec (Canada). Environ Res,107(3):380-92.
36. Vigeh M, Yokoyama K, Matsukawa T,, et al (2017).Effects of Hair Metals on Body Weight in Iranian Children Aged 20 to 36 Months. Iran J Public Health,46(8):1018-1027.
37. Varrica D, Tamburo E, Milia N, et al (2014).Metals and metalloids in hair samples of children living near the abandoned mine sites of Sulcis-Inglesiente (Sardinia, Italy). Environ Res,134:366-74.
38. Oulhote Y, Mergler D, Bouchard MF (2011). Sex- and age-differences in blood manganese levels in the U.S. general population: national health and nutrition examination survey 2011-2012. Environ Health,13:87.
39. Zhang LL, Lu L, Pan YJ, et al (20115). Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb. Environ Res,140:10-7.
40. Inoue Y, Umezaki M, Jiang H, et al (2014). Urinary concentrations of toxic and essential trace elements among rural residents in Hainan Island, China. Int J Environ Res Public Health,11(12):13047-13064.
41. Gulson B, Mizon K, Korsch M, Taylor A (2016). Revisiting mobilisation of skeletal lead during pregnancy based on monthly sampling and cord/maternal blood lead relationships confirm placental transfer of lead. Arch Toxicol,90(4):805-16.
42. Barbosa F Jr, Ramires I, Rodrigues MH, et al (2006). Contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure. Environ Res,102(1):90-5.
43. Bjorkman L, Vahter M, Pedersen NL (2000). Both the environment and genes are important for concentrations of cadmium and lead in blood. Environ Health Perspect ,108(8):719-22.
44. Fabis W (1987). Schadstoftbelastung Von Böden-Auswirkurgen auf Böden-und Wassergalitat Allg Farstzeitsehr. Münich: BLV Verlaggesellshaft, pp.: 128-131.