Original Article

Public Intention to Prepare for Earthquakes: Psychometric Prop-erties of Persian Version


Background: People are still not prepared for earthquakes in vulnerable areas although preparedness considered an effective way of reducing the disastrous consequences. A proper tool was needed to assess the predicting factors of mitigation behaviors in a large vulnerable community who speak Persian. This study aimed to introduce the valid and reliable Persian version of public intention to prepare against earthquakes.

Methods: Translation, validation and reliability checking articulated according to the standard methodology for Forward-Backward translation and psychometric evaluation. Totally, 369 Tehran households were selected through stratified random sampling from Oct 2016 to Jun 2017. Exploratory Factor Analysis used to check the construct validity of all scales.

Results: Face, content and construct validity of all scales confirmed (S-CVR: .65) and (S-CVI/Universal: .98). The finalized Persian version (69 items in 8 scales) showed good reliability over time in test-retest (ICC: .92) and high internal consistency both in the pilot (α: .94) and main studies (α: .94). No significant floor and ceiling effects were found in any of scales.

Conclusion: Persian version of Earthquake Public Intention to Prepare is applicable as a valid and reliable instrument for research regarding disaster preparedness in Persian speaking communities.

Degg M, Homan J. Earthquake vulnerability in the Middle East. Geography. 2005:54-66.

Giardini D, Danciu L, Erdik M, Şeşetyan K, Tümsa MBD, Akkar S, et al. Seismic hazard map of the Middle East. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering. 2018:1-4.

Khankeh HR, Amanat N, Hosseini M, Mohammadi Shahbolaghi F, Sadeghi A, Aghighi A. The effectiveness of earthquake confronting education for high school boys on the preparedness of their families in Eshtehard city, 2010-11. (in Persian). Journal of Rescue and Relief. [original ]. 2013;5(3):27-39.

Guha-Sapir D, Below R, Hoyois P. EM-DAT: Country profile: Iran. Brussels,Belgium:EM-DAT: The CRED/OFDA International Disaster Database: http://www.emdat.be/countryprofile/index.html.

Khankeh HR, Khorasani-Zavareh D, Johanson E, Mohammadi R, Ahmadi F, Mohammadi R. Disaster health-related challenges and requirements: a grounded theory study in Iran. Prehospital and disaster medicine. 2011;26(03):151-8.

Zangiabadi A, Khosravi F, Sahraeean Z. Extracting the Index for identifying the old structures using GIS system: Case study of the western timeworn region of Jahrom city. (in persian). Human Geography researches. 2011;43(4):117-36.

Jahangiri K, Azin S, Mohammad K, Rahimi Foroushani A. Analysis of some influencing factors on Tehran inhabitants' preparedness against earthquake in year 2007 ( in Persian). Hakim. [Original]. 2010;13(3):155-65.

Naghii M. Public health impact and medical consequences of earthquakes. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública. 2005;18(3):216-21.

De Hoop T, Ruben R. Insuring against earthquakes: simulating the cost‐effectiveness of disaster preparedness. Disasters. 2010;34(2):509-23.

Egbelakin TK, Wilkinson S, Potangaroa R, Ingham J. Challenges to successful seismic retrofit implementation: a socio-behavioural perspective. Building Research & Information. 2011;39(3):286-300.

Greene G, Turley R, Mann M, Amlôt R, Page L, Palmer S. Differing community responses to similar public health threats: a cross-disciplinary systematic literature review. Science of the Total Environment. 2014;470:759-67.

Asgarizadeh Z, Rafieian M, Dadashpour H. The evaluation and analysis of empirical model of earthquake mitigation behaviors in Tehran households. (in persian). Geography and environmental hazards. [Original]. 2015;3(4):39-60.

Najafi M, Ardalan A, Akbarisari A, Noorbala AA, Jabbari H. Demographic determinants of disaster preparedness behaviors amongst Tehran inhabitants, Iran. PLoS currents. 2015;7.

Khankeh HR, Mohammadi R, Ahmadi F. Barriers and facilitators of health care services at the time of natural disasters. Journal of Rehabilitation. 2005;6(1):23-30.

Ranjbar M, Soleimani AA, Saleh Sedghpour B, Mohammadi Shahboulaghi F, Paton D, Noroozi M. Associating Factors With Public Preparedness Behavior Against Earthquake: A Review of Iranian Research Literature. Health in Emergencies & Disasters Quarterly (HDQ). [Review]. 2018;3(2):67-76.

Nikmard Namin S, Barakpour N, Abdollahi M. Seismic Risk Reduction with confirming on the social factors, Resilience Approach; Case study: Tehran district, 22. (in persian). Urban management. 2014;37:19-34.

Djalali A, Castren M, Khankeh H, Gryth D, Radestad M, Öhlen G, et al. Hospital disaster preparedness as measured by functional capacity: a comparison between Iran and Sweden. Prehospital and disaster medicine. 2013;28(05):454-61.

Paton D, Bajek R, Okada N, McIvor D. Predicting community earthquake preparedness: a cross-cultural comparison of Japan and New Zealand. Natural hazards. 2010;54(3):765-81.

Troy DA, Carson A, Vanderbeek J, Hutton A. Enhancing community‐based disaster preparedness with information technology. Disasters. 2008;32(1):149-65.

Romo‐Murphy E, James R, Adams M. Facilitating disaster preparedness through local radio broadcasting. Disasters. 2011;35(4):801-15.

Paton D. Disaster preparedness: a social-cognitive perspective. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal. 2003;12(3):210-6.

Ardalan A, Sohrabizadeh S. Assessing households preparedness for earthquakes: an exploratory study in the development of a valid and reliable Persian-version tool. PLoS currents. 2016;8.


Farjzadeh asl M, Ahadnejad M, Amini J. Evaluating the seismic vulnerability of urban buildings: case study of Tehran district 9. (in persian). Urban and Regional studies. [Original]. 2011;3(9):19-36.

Paton D, Houghton BF, Gregg CE, McIvor D, Johnston DM, Bürgelt P, et al. Managing tsunami risk: Social context influences on preparedness. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology. 2009;3(01):27-37.

Paton D, Okada N, Sagala S. Understanding preparedness for natural hazards: a cross cultural comparison. Journal of Integrated Disaster Risk Management. 2013;3(1):18-35.

Paton D, Anderson E, Becker J, Petersen J. Developing a comprehensive model of hazard preparedness: lessons from the Christchurch earthquake. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 2015;14:37-45.

McIvor D, Paton D, Johnston D. Modeling Community Preparation for Natural Hazards: Understanding Hazard cognitions. June 2010 ed. Tasmania: University of Tasmania; 2010. p. 301.

Paton D, Smith L, Johnston D. When good intentions turn bad: promoting natural hazard preparedness. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, The. 2005;20(1):25.

Paton D. Disaster resilience: integrating individual, community, institutional and environmental perspectives. Disaster resilience: An integrated approach. 2006;320.

Paton D. Risk communication and natural hazard mitigation: how trust influences its effectiveness. International Journal of Global Environmental Issues. 2008;8(1-2):2-16.

Becker JS, Paton D, Johnston DM, Ronan KR. A model of household preparedness for earthquakes: how individuals make meaning of earthquake information and how this influences preparedness. Natural hazards. 2012;64(1):107-37.

Scholtes VA, Terwee CB, Poolman RW. What makes a measurement instrument valid and reliable? Injury. 2011;42(3):236-40.

Wild D, Grove A, Martin M, Eremenco S, McElroy S, Verjee‐Lorenz A, et al. Principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for patient‐reported outcomes (PRO) measures: report of the ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation. Value in health. 2005;8(2):94-104.

Sperber AD. Translation and validation of study instruments for cross-cultural research. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:S124-S8.

DeVon HA, Block ME, Moyle‐Wright P, Ernst DM, Hayden SJ, Lazzara DJ, et al. A psychometric toolbox for testing validity and reliability. Journal of Nursing scholarship. 2007;39(2):155-64.

Lawshe CH. A quantitative approach to content validity1. Personnel psychology. 1975;28(4):563-75.

Polit DF, Beck CT, Owen SV. Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations. Research in nursing & health. 2007;30(4):459-67.

Panayides P. Coefficient alpha: interpret with caution. Europe’s Journal of Psychology. 2013;9(4):687–96.

Terwee CB, Bot SD, de Boer MR, van der Windt DA, Knol DL, Dekker J, et al. Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2007;60(1):34-42.

Bowling A. Research methods in health: investigating health and health services: McGraw-Hill Education (UK); 2014.

Rahnama AHa, Taleai M. Prioritization of Reconstructing Tehran urban districts against earthquake based on GIS and Phasic Model. Quarterly Journal of Environmental based Territorial Planning [original]. 2012;38(56):115-30.

Rafieian M, Shali M. The spatial analysis of the development level of urban districts in Tehran (in Persian). . The journal of Spatial planning. [Original ]. 2013;16(4(78)):25-49.

McClure J, Allen MW, Walkey F. Countering fatalism: Causal information in news reports affects judgments about earthquake damage. Basic and Applied Social Psychology. 2001;23(2):109-21.

Flynn J, Slovic P, Mertz C, Carlisle C. Public support for earthquake risk mitigation in Portland, Oregon. Risk Analysis. 1999;19(2):205-16.

Paton D, Johnston D. Disaster Resilience: An Integrated Approach. Springfield, Illinois: Charles Thomas Publisher LTD.; 2006.

Paton D, Okada N, Sagala S. Understanding Preparedness for Natural Hazards: Cross cultural comparison. IDRiM Journal. 2013;3(1):18-35.

IssueVol 50 No 8 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v50i8.6815
Earthquake Intention to prepare Translation Psychometric properties

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Ranjbar M, Soleimani AA, Saleh Sedghpour B, Mohammadi Shahbolaghi F, Paton D, Noroozi M. Public Intention to Prepare for Earthquakes: Psychometric Prop-erties of Persian Version. Iran J Public Health. 2021;50(8):1678-1686.