Cancer Risk Assessment for Workers Exposed to Pollution Source, a Petrochemical Company, Iran
Background: Air pollution have led to severe problem of adverse health effect in the world. This study aimed to conduct the health risk assessment, cancer risk analysis, and non-cancer risk for exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in petrochemical industry.
Methods: In this cross-sectional research, 123 samples were collected in the ambient air in Iran during winter 2016. For sampling and analysis of VOCs and H2S, 3 methods (numbers 1500, 1501, and 6013) presented by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) were used. For determination of risk assessment of chemical pollutants, semi-quantitative method presented by the Occupational Safety and Health Division, Singapore was used. Finally, for calculation of cancer risk analysis, Chronic Daily Intake (CDI) and calculation of non-cancer risk, Exposure Concentration (EC) were used.
Results: Average concentration of benzene (2.12±0.95) in breathing zone of workers were higher than the Threshold Limit Values-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) (P<0.05). Among chemical substance, benzene had very high rank of risk in petrochemical industry. Rank of risk for H2S, toluene, and xylene present in the breathing zone of workers was low. The mean cancer risk for workers exposed to benzene was estimated 8.78×10-3, in other words, 8.7 cancer per 1000 i.e. higher than the acceptable standard of 10-6. In our study, non-cancer risk for BTX was higher than the acceptable standard of 1.
Conclusion: In particular, overall cancer and toxic risk can be associated with long term exposure to benzene.
Golbabaei F, Karimi A, Neghab M, Pourmand M, Bakhtiari R, Mohammad K. Design, construction and optimization of two phase stirred tank bioreactor for elimination of xylene from airstream. Journal of Health and Safety at Work. 2013;3(2):59-66.
Gariazzo C, Pelliccioni A, Di Filippo P, Sallusti F, Cecinato A. Monitoring and analysis of volatile organic compounds around an oil refinery. Water, air, and soil pollution. 2005;167(1-4):17-38.
Maghsoodi Moghadam R, Bahrami A, Ghorbani F, Mahjub H, Malaki D. Investigation of qualitative and quantitative of volatile organic compounds of ambient air in the Mahshahr petrochemical complex in 2009. Journal of research in health sciences. 2013;13(1):69-74.
Rao P, Ansari M, Gavane A, Pandit V, Nema P, Devotta S. Seasonal variation of toxic benzene emissions in petroleum refinery. Environmental monitoring and assessment. 2007;128(1-3):323-8.
Obuskovic G, Majumdar S, Sirkar K. Highly VOC-selective hollow fiber membranes for separation by vapor permeation. Journal of Membrane science. 2003;217(1):99-116.
Skorska C, Mackiewicz B, Dutkiewicz J. Effects of exposure to flax dust in Polish farmers: work-related symptoms and immunologic response to microbial antigens associated with dust. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine. 2000;7(2):111-8.
Yu K-M, Topham N, Wang J, Kalivoda M, Tseng Y, Wu C-Y, et al. Decreasing biotoxicity of fume particles produced in welding process. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2011;185(2):1587-91.
Golbabaie F, Eskandari D, Rezazade Azari M, Jahangiri M, Rahimi M, Shahtaheri J. Health risk assessment of chemical pollutants in a petrochemical complex. Iran Occupational Health. 2012;9(3):11-21.
Kimura H. Hydrogen sulfide as a neuromodulator. Molecular neurobiology. 2002;26(1):13-9.
Elrod JW, Calvert JW, Morrison J, Doeller JE, Kraus DW, Tao L, et al. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by preservation of mitochondrial function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2007;104(39):15560-5.
Reiffenstein R, Hulbert WC, Roth SH. Toxicology of hydrogen sulfide. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 1992;32(1):109-34.
Eisaei HR, Dehrashid A, Shaho S, Khani MR, Hashemi SM. Assessment and control of VOCs emitted from gas stations in Tehran, Iran. Pollution. 2015;1(4):363-71.
Singh A, Tomer N, Jain C. Monitoring, assessment and status of benzene, toluene and xylene pollution in the urban atmosphere of Delhi, India. Res J Chem Sci. 2012;2(4):45-9.
OLIN GR. The hazards of a chemical laboratory environment—a study of the mortality in two cohorts of Swedish chemists. The American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 1978;39(7):557-62.
Chan DW, Tam CS, Jones A. An inter-comparison of VOC types and distribution in different indoor environments in a university campus. Indoor and Built Environment. 2007;16(4):376-82.
ATSDR U. Toxicological Profile for Benzene, US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA, 2007.
Hayes RB, Dosemeci M, Wacholder S, Travis LB, Rothman N, Hoover RN, et al. Benzene and the dose-related incidence of hematologic neoplasms in China. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1997;89(14):1065-71.
Dennison JE, Bigelow PL, Mumtaz MM, Andersen ME, Dobrev ID, Yang RS. Evaluation of potential toxicity from co-exposure to three CNS depressants (toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) under resting and working conditions using PBPK modeling. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 2005;2(3):127-35.
Tunsaringkarn T, Siriwong W, Rungsiyothin A, Nopparatbundit S. Occupational exposure of gasoline station workers to BTEX compounds in Bangkok, Thailand. The international journal of occupational and environmental medicine. 2012;3(3 July).
Yimrungruang D, Cheevaporn V, Boonphakdee T, Watchalayann P, Helander HF. Characterization and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds in gas service station workers. Environment Asia. 2008;2:21-9.
Edokpolo B, Yu QJ, Connell D. Health risk assessment of ambient air concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) in service station environments. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2014;11(6):6354-74.
Lerner JC, Sanchez E, Sambeth J, Porta A. Characterization and health risk assessment of VOCs in occupational environments in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Atmospheric environment. 2012;55:440-7.
Nordlinder R, Ramnäs O. Exposure to benzene at different work places in Sweden. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 1987;31(3):345-55.
Zhang L, Eastmond DA, Smith MT. The nature of chromosomal aberrations detected in humans exposed to benzene. Critical reviews in toxicology. 2002;32(1):1-42.
Jafari H, Ebrahimi S. A study on risk assessment of benzene as one of the VOCs air pollution. 2007.
Wang S-M, Wu T-N, Juang Y-J, Dai Y-T, Tsai P-J, Chen C-Y. Developing a semi-quantitative occupational risk prediction model for chemical exposures and its application to a national chemical exposure databank. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2013;10(8):3157-71.
Council NR. Risk assessment in the federal government: managing the process. 1983.
Carere A, Antoccia A, Cimini D, Crebelli R, Degrassi F, Leopardi P, et al. Genetic effects of petroleum fuels: II. Analysis of chromosome loss and hyperploidy in peripheral lymphocytes of gasoline station attendants. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis. 1998;32(2):130-8.
Guénel P, Imbernon E, Chevalier A, Crinquand‐Calastreng A, Goldberg M. Leukemia in relation to occupational exposures to benzene and other agents: A case‐control study nested in a cohort of gas and electric utility workers. American journal of industrial medicine. 2002;42(2):87-97.
Guo H, Lee S, Chan L, Li W. Risk assessment of exposure to volatile organic compounds in different indoor environments. Environmental Research. 2004;94(1):57-66.
Morello‐Frosch RA, Woodruff TJ, Axelrad DA, Caldwell JC. Air toxics and health risks in California: the public health implications of outdoor concentrations. Risk Analysis. 2000;20(2):273-92.
GOLBABAEI F, HASSANI H, GHAHRI A, MIRGHANI S, AREFIAN S, KHADEM M, et al. Risk Assessment of Exposure to Gases Released by Welding Processes in Iranian Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines Industry. International Journal of Occupational Hygiene. 2015;4(1):6-9.
Ministry of Manpower OSaHD. semi-quantitative method to assess occupational exposure to harmful chemicals. Singapore. 2005.
Hayes RB, Songnian Y, Dosemeci M, Linet M. Benzene and lymphohematopoietic malignancies in humans†. American journal of industrial medicine. 2001;40(2):117-26.
Cao Q, Yu Q, Connell DW. Health risk characterisation for environmental pollutants with a new concept of overall risk probability. Journal of hazardous materials. 2011;187(1):480-7.
Chen X, Zhang L-w, Huang J-j, Song F-j, Zhang L-p, Qian Z-m, et al. Long-term exposure to urban air pollution and lung cancer mortality: A 12-year cohort study in Northern China. Science of The Total Environment. 2016;571:855-61.
Olufemi AC, Mji A, Mukhola MS. Assessment of secondary school students’ awareness, knowledge and attitudes to environmental pollution issues in the mining regions of South Africa: implications for instruction and learning. Environmental Education Research. 2016;22(1):43-61.
Shepardson DP, Choi S, Niyogi D, Charusombat U. Seventh grade students' mental models of the greenhouse effect. Environmental Education Research. 2011;17(1):1-17.
Harati B, Shahtaheri SJ, Karimi A, Azam K, Ahmadi A, Rad MA, et al. Cancer Risk Analysis of Benzene and Ethyl Benzene in Painters. Basic & Clinical Cancer Research. 2017;8(4):22-8.
Chiu KH, Sree U, Tseng SH, Wu C-H, Lo J-G. Differential optical absorption spectrometer measurement of NO 2, SO 2, O 3, HCHO and aromatic volatile organics in ambient air of Kaohsiung Petroleum Refinery in Taiwan. Atmospheric Environment. 2005;39(5):941-55.
HUMANS IMOTEOCRT. Occupational Exposures in Petroleum Refining; Crude on and Major Petroleum Fuels. 1 -8 March 1988;VOLUME 45.
Tunsaringkarn T, Prueksasit T, Kitwattanavong M, Siriwong W, Sematong S, Zapuang K, et al. Cancer risk analysis of benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde on gasoline station workers. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Ecological Science. 2012;1(1):1.
Khuder SA, Youngdale MC, Bisesi MS, Schaub EA. Assessment of complete blood count variations among workers exposed to low levels of benzene. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine. 1999;41(9):821-6.
Kipen HM, Cody RP, Goldstein BD. Use of longitudinal analysis of peripheral blood counts to validate historical reconstructions of benzene exposure. Environmental health perspectives. 1989;82:199.